Substance Info: (and synonyms)

Background Info:

See: Oats (for allergy to the food), Cultivated Oat (for allergy to the pollen), and False Oat grass (Arrhenatherum elatius).

Oats are of uncertain origin, but probably originated in Europe from two species, Wild Oats (A. fatua L.) and Wild Red Oats (A. sterilis L.). Oats are now cultivated throughout the temperate zones of the world. The major growing areas are the USA, southern Canada, the USSR and Europe, particularly near the Mediterranean. Oats serve as food for humans, animal fodder and bedding, and - especially in the form of extracts - in a variety of industrial uses. There are many named varieties of this cultivated cereal, with new forms being developed each year.

Oats are an erect, tufted annual grass growing to 1.2m. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs). Flowering is between early spring and early summer, seed ripening between late summer and mid-autumn.

A carbohydrate-containing soluble fibre, shown to have a cholesterol-lowering effect. Oatmeal is a rich source of phytates (Sanders)

Castor bean and dehulled oats contain acid-stable lipase, which demonstrated significant lipolytic activity at pH 5.6 in this study (Tursi 1994 ref.1875 3)

Oats grow in cultivated beds, and in dry wasteland and meadows, especially on heavier soils.

Oats are by far the most nutritious of the cereal grasses. They are high in vitamin B-1 and contain vitamins B-2 and E. Used as a cereal, they are probably best known as the breakfast cereal porridge, but can also be used in many other ways. The seed can be sprouted and eaten in salads. The grain can also be ground into a flour and used in making biscuits, sourdough, etc. Oats are fairly low in gluten, and so not suitable for making bread. Oat flour inhibits rancidity and, as an additive, increases the length of shelf-stability of fatty foods such as vegetable oils. Oats are also one of the basic ingredients of whisky. The roasted seed is a coffee substitute. An edible oil is obtained from the seed and used in the manufacture of breakfast cereals. Oats are often a major ingredient in cosmetics, creams and skin cleansers. Available as whole oat grains when the husks are removed; oatmeal from cut or ground oats; and rolled oats when grains cut in slices then steamed and rolled. All produced from husked seed or grain of oat plant.

Oats are widely thought to have antispasmodic, diuretic, emollient, nervine, stimulant, anti-depressant, vulnerary and anti-tumor properties. When consumed regularly, oat germ reduces blood cholesterol levels. Oat straw and the grain are prescribed to treat general debility and a wide range of nervous conditions.

Among the conditions treated with Oats, both as a medical prescription and a folk remedy, are eczema, dyspepsia, gastroenteritis, gout, insomnia, neurosis, paralysis, parturition, psoriasis, and rheumatism.


Adverse Reactions:


[ 1 / 23 ]

Anaphylactic reaction to dietary oats. A 7-year-old boy was brought to the pediatric clinic with cough, pruritus, and wheezing that developed within 30 minutes after he ingested cereal containing wheat and oats. This was the ?rst time he had consumed oats. Serum speci?c IgE antibody levels were found to be 150 UA/mL and 10.5 UA/ml against oat and wheat, respectively. Skin prick test was positive for samples of oat. The patient’s IgE showed binding to three bands of proteins: 23, 30, and 35 kDa. The 23-kDa protein band had 100% identity with the amino acid sequence of 12S seed storage globulin 1 basic chain and 12S seed storage globulin 2 basic chain from A. sativa. The 35-kDa band could not be determined because the N-terminal was blocked. (Inuo 2013 ref.28910 7)

Inuo C, Kondo Y, Itagaki Y, Kurihara K, Tsuge I, Yoshikawa T, Urisu A. Anaphylactic reaction to dietary oats. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2013 Apr;110(4):305-306

[ 2 / 23 ]

The aim of this study was to find out if barley starch syrup causes allergic reactions in patients with allergy to wheat, barley, rye or oats. Fifteen children with allergy to these cereals, confirmed by double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC), were selected for the study. When exposed to cereals, seven of the children (47%) showed immediate type reactions, such as urticaria, rash or anaphylaxis. Eight of the children (53%) showed delayed type reactions, such as deterioration of atopic dermatitis or diarrhoea. The fifteen children with allergy to cereals were exposed to barley starch syrup in DBPCFC and none of them showed any objective signs of allergy. On skin-prick tests (SPT), five of the children (33.3%) showed a positive (>or= 3 mm) reaction to at least one of the cereals but none of them to barley starch syrup. This study confirmed with 98% confidence that at least 90% of the patients with verified allergy to cereals will not react with allergic symptoms to barley starch syrup. (Nermes 2009 ref.24046 5)

Nermes M, Karvonen H, Sarkkinen E, Isolauri E. Safety of barley starch syrup in patients with allergy to cereals. Br J Nutr 2009 Jan;101(2):165-8.

[ 3 / 23 ]

Thirty-five children experienced 66 episodes of food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome. The mean age at initial presentation was 5.5 months. Children frequently experienced multiple episodes before a correct diagnosis was made. Twenty-nine children reacted to 1 food, and 6 reacted to 2 foods. Causative foods for the 35 children were rice (n = 14), soy (n = 12), cow's milk (n = 7), vegetables and fruits (n = 3), meats (n = 2), oats (n = 2), and fish (n = 1). In the 66 episodes, vomiting was the most common clinical feature (100%), followed by lethargy (85%), pallor (67%), and diarrhea (24%). A temperature of <36 degrees C at presentation was recorded for 24% of episodes. A platelet count of >500 x 10(9) cells per L was recorded for 63% of episodes with blood count results. Only 2 of the 19 children who presented to an emergency department with their initial reactions were discharged with correct diagnoses. (Mehr 2009 ref.24044 7)

Mehr S, Kakakios A, Frith K, Kemp AS. Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome: 16-year experience. Pediatrics 2009 Mar;123(3):e459-64.

[ 4 / 23 ]

Cow's milk and soy are the most common causes of food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES), but cereal grains (rice, oat, and barley), fish, poultry, and vegetables may also cause FPIES. Rice is the most common solid food causing FPIES. Rice FPIES is associated with more severe reactions than other foods. Infants presenting acutely may be hypothermic (<36 degrees C) and have thrombocytosis. Finding of hypoalbuminemia and weight gain less than 10 g/day helps to differentiate chronic infantile cow's milk FPIES from infectious causes. Gastric juice leukocytes more than 10 cells per high-power field are found in infants with positive oral food challenge to cow's milk. (Nowak-Wegrzyn 2009 ref.23642 7)

Nowak-Wegrzyn A, Muraro A. Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 2009 May 26;

[ 5 / 23 ]

A 20-month-old girl with hypereosinophilia, hyper-immunoglobulin (Ig) E syndrome, and atopic dermatitis. Eosinophil count was 2.65 x 10(9)/L and and IgE plasma levels were 6702 IU/mL. Specific IgE levels for a variety of foods and inhalants were high and single-blind food challenges were positive for cow's milk, hen's egg, oat, wheat, and soy. When the patient received an extensively hydrolyzed milk formula, an exclusion diet, and 2 mg/kg of prednisone daily, the atopic dermatitis partially improved. Further improvement was observed with 1 mg/kg of azathioprine daily. Food hypersensitivity should be ruled out in patients with hypereosinophilia, hyper-IgE syndrome, and atopic dermatitis. (Estrada-Reyes 2008 ref.22121 8)

Estrada-Reyes E, Hernnández-Román MP, Gamboa-Marrufo JD, Valencia-Herrera A, Nava-Ocampo AA. Hypereosinophilia, hyper-IgE syndrome, and atopic dermatitis in a toddler with food hypersensitivity. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol 2008;18(2):131-5

[ 6 / 23 ]

A position statement by the Canadian Celiac Association.
Recent evidence suggests that oats that are pure and uncontaminated with other gluten-containing grains, if taken in limited quantities, are safe for most individuals with celiac disease. For adults, up to 70 g (1/2 to 3/4 cup) of oats per day and for children, up to 25 g (1/4 cup) per day are safe to consume. These oats and oat products must fulfill the standards for a gluten-free diet set by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency and Health Canada. (Rashid 2007 ref.21597 7)

Rashid M, Butzner D, Burrows V, Zarkadas M, Case S, Molloy M, Warren R, Pulido O, Switzer C. Consumption of pure oats by individuals with celiac disease: a position statement by the Canadian Celiac Association. Can J Gastroenterol 2007 Oct;21(10):649-51.

[ 7 / 23 ]

Topical treatments of atopic dermatitis (AD) may be responsible for cutaneous allergies. Percutaneous sensitization to oat used in emollients/moisturizers has already been reported. Children with AD were atopy patch tested (APT) and skin prick tests (SPT) to oat proteins (1%, 3% and 5%) were performed followed by oral food challenge (OFC) and repeated open application test (ROAT) in the oat-sensitized group. 302 children were enrolled and oat APT and SPT were positive in 14.6% and 19.2% of cases, respectively. Children under 2 years of age were more likely to have positive APT. In oat-sensitized children, OFC and ROAT were positive in 15.6% (five of 32) and 28% (seven of 25) of cases, respectively. Thirty-two percentage of oat cream users had oat-positive atopy patch test (APT) vs 0% in the nonusers group. The study concludes that oat sensitization in AD children seen for allergy testing is higher than expected. It may be the result of repeated applications of cosmetics with oats on a predisposed impaired epidermal barrier. (Boussault 2007 ref.20624 7)

Boussault P, Leaute-Labreze C, Saubusse E, Maurice-Tison S, Perromat M, Roul S, Sarrat A, Taieb A, Boralevi F. Oat sensitization in children with atopic dermatitis: prevalence, risks and associated factors. Allergy 2007 Nov;62(11):1251-1256

[ 8 / 23 ]

This study concludes that delaying initial exposure to cereal grains (wheat, barley, rye, oats) until after 6 months may increase the risk of developing wheat allergy. These results do not support delaying introduction of cereal grains for the protection of food allergy. A total of 1612 children were enrolled at birth and followed to the mean age of 4.7 years. Questionnaire data and dietary exposures were obtained at 3, 6, 9, 15, and 24 months and annually thereafter. The main outcome measure was parent report of wheat allergy. Children with celiac disease autoimmunity were excluded. Wheat-specific immunoglobulin E levels on children reported to have wheat allergy were obtained. Sixteen children (1%) reported wheat allergy. Children who were first exposed to cereals after 6 months of age had an increased risk of wheat allergy compared with children first exposed to cereals before 6 months of age (after controlling for confounders including a family history of allergic disorders and history of food allergy before 6 months of age). All 4 children with detectable wheat-specific immunoglobulin E were first exposed to cereal grains after 6 months. (Poole 2006 ref.14355 5)

Poole JA, Barriga K, Leung DY, Hoffman M, Eisenbarth GS, Rewers M, Norris JM. Timing of initial exposure to cereal grains and the risk of wheat allergy. Pediatrics 2006 Jun;117(6):2175-2182

[ 9 / 23 ]

Enterocolitis induced in infants by cow's milk and/or soy protein has been recognized for decades. Symptoms typically begin in the first month of life in association with failure to thrive and may progress to acidemia and shock. Symptoms resolve after the causal protein is removed from the diet but recur with a characteristic symptom pattern on re-exposure. Approximately 2 hours after reintroduction of the protein, vomiting ensues, followed by an elevation of the peripheral blood polymorphonuclear leukocyte count, diarrhea, and possibly lethargy and hypotension. The disorder is generally not associated with detectable food-specific IgE antibody. (Sicherer 2005 ref.11114 5)

Sicherer SH. Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome: case presentations and management lessons. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2005;115(1):149-56.

[ 10 / 23 ]

Oats are tolerated by most patients with coeliac disease but are not totally innocent. There are considerable differences between individual patients with respect to clinical and mucosal responses to gluten challenge. In vitro and in vivo testing has identified synthetic peptides that are toxic to the coeliac small intestinal mucosa. This toxicity overlaps at least partly to the known epitopes that are recognised by small intestinal T-cells. However, the clinical significance of several of these epitopes is unclear, as is the maximum level of gluten intake that can be recommended to be safe for patients with coeliac disease.

Ciclitira PJ, Ellis HJ, Lundin KE. Gluten-free diet--what is toxic? Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol 2005 Jun;19(3):359-71.

[ 11 / 23 ]

12 containers of oats representing 4 different lots of 3 brands were tested for gluten contamination using the R5 ELISA. Contamination levels ranged from below the limit of detection (3 ppm gluten) to 1807 ppm gluten. Three of the 12 oat samples contained gluten levels of less than 20 ppm, and the other nine had levels that ranged from 23 to 1,807 ppm. All brands of oats tested had at least 1 container of oats that tested above 200 ppm gluten. (Thompson 2004 ref.14055 5)

Thompson T. Gluten contamination of commercial oat products in the United States. N Engl J Med 2004 Nov 4;351(19):2021-2.

[ 12 / 23 ]

Recent feeding studies have indicated oats to be safe for celiac disease patients, and oats are now often included in the celiac disease diet. This study aimed to investigate whether oat intolerance exists in celiac disease and to characterize the cells and processes underlying this intolerance. Nine adults with celiac disease who had a history of oats exposure was selected for this study. Four of the patients had clinical symptoms on an oats-containing diet, and three of these four patients had intestinal inflammation typical of celiac disease at the time of oats exposure. We established oats-avenin-specific and -reactive intestinal T-cell lines from these three patients, as well as from two other patients who appeared to tolerate oats. The avenin-reactive T-cell lines recognized avenin peptides in the context of HLA-DQ2. These peptides have sequences rich in proline and glutamine residues closely resembling wheat gluten epitopes. Deamidation (glutamine-->glutamic acid conversion) by tissue transglutaminase was involved in the avenin epitope formation. The study concludes that some celiac disease patients have avenin-reactive mucosal T-cells that can cause mucosal inflammation. (Arentz-Hansen 2004 ref.15199 7)

Arentz-Hansen H, Fleckenstein B, Molberg O, Scott H, Koning F, Jung G, Roepstorff P, Lundin KE, Sollid LM. The molecular basis for oat intolerance in patients with celiac disease. PLoS Med 2004 Oct;1(1):e1.

[ 13 / 23 ]

Infantile food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) is a severe, cell-mediated gastrointestinal food hypersensitivity typically provoked by cow's milk or soy. This study reports on other foods causing this syndrome: 14 infants with FPIES caused by grains (rice, oat, and barley), vegetables (sweet potato, squash, string beans, peas), or poultry (chicken and turkey) were identified. Symptoms of typical FPIES are delayed (median: 2 hours) and include the onset of vomiting, diarrhea, and lethargy/dehydration. Eleven infants (78%) reacted to >1 food protein, including 7 (50%) that reacted to >1 grain. Nine (64%) of all patients with solid food-FPIES also had cow's milk and/or soy-FPIES. Initial presentation was severe in 79% of the patients, prompting sepsis evaluations (57%) and hospitalization (64%) for dehydration or shock. None of the patients developed FPIES to maternally ingested foods while breastfeeding unless the causal food was fed directly to the infant. (Nowak-Wegrzyn 2003 ref.7791 5)

Nowak-Wegrzyn A, Sampson HA, Wood RA, Sicherer SH. Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome caused by solid food proteins. Pediatrics 2003;111(4 Pt 1):829-35

[ 14 / 23 ]

Allergic contact urticaria to oatmeal. (De 2002 ref.7111 0)

De Paz Arranz S, Perez Montero A, Remon LZ, Molero MI. Allergic contact urticaria to oatmeal. Allergy 2002;57(12):1215

[ 15 / 23 ]

Allergic contact dermatitis due to avena extract. A 3-year-old girl with atopic dermatitis developed a flare-up after application of a moisturizer. IgE levels were elevated (700 u/ml). Patch testing was positive to the cream. It contained Avena sativa oat extract, Vaseline oil and zinc oxide. Further patch tests with the individual ingredients, showed positive reactions to Avena ingredient. A prick test with Avena was also positive. The patient had complete regression of her dermatitis after avoiding further contact with the cosmetic cream. (Pazzaglia 2000 ref.7466 7)

Pazzaglia M, Jorizzo M, Parente G, Tosti A. Allergic contact dermatitis due to avena extract. Contact Dermatitis 2000;42(6):364

[ 16 / 23 ]

No evidence of sensitization to topical oat and rice colloidal grain suspensions used for eczema in normal and atopic children in the group studied (Pigatto 1997 ref.2146 7)

Pigatto P, Bigardi A, et al. An evaluation of the allergic contact dermatitis potential of colloidal grain
suspensions. Am J Contact Dermat 1997;8(4):207-209

[ 17 / 23 ]

Oats is safe in coeliac disease. (Srinivasan 1996 ref.2157 6)

Srinivasan U, Leonard N, Jones E, Kasarda DD, et al. Absence of oats toxicity in adult coeliac disease. BMJ 1996;313(7068):1300-1301

[ 18 / 23 ]

In a study of 34 children with atopic dermatitis, 33 were SPT positive to wheat and 18 to oats. Positive RAST to wheat and oats could be detected in 32 and 30 samples respectively. From the oral wheat challenge positive children 12/14 appeared positive with gliadin SPT and revealed positive RAST to gluten, but each of the wheat challenge negative were negative in SPT with gliadin. (Varjonen 1995 ref.7564 4)

Varjonen E, Vainio E, Kalimo K, Juntunen-Backman K, Savolainen J. Skin-prick test and RAST responses to cereals in children with atopic dermatitis. Characterization of IgE-binding components in wheat and oats by an immunoblotting method. Clin Exp Allergy 1995;25(11):1100-7

[ 19 / 23 ]

Hypersensitivity to cereals may occur via inhalation or ingestion. Little information is available of the allergens causing symptoms in patients with atopic dermatitis. This Finnish study analysed the IgE immune-response to various cereals and specific cereal fractions of wheat and oats in children with severe AD and correlated the results with challenge studies. Skin- prick tests with wheat, oats, rice, corn, millet and buckwheat and an ethanol soluble gliadin fraction of wheat were performed to 34 wheat/oats challenge positive or negative children with AD. From the 34 AD children 33 were SPT positive with wheat and 18 with oats. Positive RAST to wheat and oats could be detected in 32 and 30 samples respectively. SPT with rice, corn, millet or buckwheat was positive in 16/34 patients. From the oral wheat challenge positive children 12/14 appeared positive with gliadin SPT and revealed positive RAST to gluten, but each of the wheat challenge negative were negative in SPT with gliadin. Immunoblotting using neutral and acidic fractions of cereals the IgE binding with sera of challenge positive children showed the most intensive staining, but no correlation was found between different staining patterns and the clinical wheat sensitivity. SPT with rice, corn, millet or buckwheat was positive in 16/34 patients. The strong association between the positive oral wheat challenge and the positive SPT with the ethanol soluble gliadin suggests that also gliadin is an important allergen in wheat-allergic children with AD.

The 26, 38 and 69 kDa bands in wheat and the 46 and 66 kDa in oats could be classified as major IgE binding proteins of these cereals (> 50% of the sera were positive). (Varjonen 1995 ref.7564 4)

Varjonen E, Vainio E, Kalimo K, Juntunen-Backman K, Savolainen J. Skin-prick test and RAST responses to cereals in children with atopic dermatitis. Characterization of IgE-binding components in wheat and oats by an immunoblotting method. Clin Exp Allergy 1995;25(11):1100-7

[ 20 / 23 ]

In a study with challenges to the common cereals, 80% reacted to only one grain. (Jones 1995 ref.2465 0)

Jones SM, Magnolfi CF, Cooke SK, Sampson HA. Immunologic cross-reactivity among cereal grains and grasses in children with food hypersensitivity. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1995;96:341-51.

[ 21 / 23 ]

Cereal-induced symptoms were dermatologic, gastrointestinal, or oropharyngeal, and their onset after provocation was immediate (eight cases), delayed (14 cases), or both immediate and delayed (one case). On oral provocation, 18 children exhibited a positive response to wheat, three to rye, one to barley, and one to oats. (Rasanen 1994 ref.1312 5)

Räsänen L, Lehto M, Turjanmaa K, Savolainen J, Reunala T. Allergy to ingested cereals in atopic children. Allergy 1994;49(10):871-6

[ 22 / 23 ]

See: Oats (for allergy to the food),
Cultivated Oat (for allergy to the pollen), and,
False Oat grass (Arrhenatherum elatius)

Editor Comment Editorial comment, common knowledge, or still to add - -

[ 23 / 23 ]

Oats may be contaminated by wheat - it would be important to differentiate whether the allergic symptoms are attributable to wheat and not oats. (Editor ref.195 73)

Editor Comment Editorial comment, common knowledge, or still to add - -

Non-Immune reactions

[ 1 ]

Recently, a large epidemiological investigation in a cohort of children at risk for IDDM found that exposure to cereals (rice, wheat, oats, barley, rye) that occurred early (< or = 3 months) as well as late (> or = 7 months) resulted in a significantly higher risk of the appearance of islet cell autoimmunity compared to the introduction between 4 and 6 months. (Guandalini 2007 ref.21598 5)

Guandalini S. The influence of gluten: weaning recommendations for healthy children and children at risk for celiac disease. Nestle Nutr Workshop Ser Pediatr Program 2007;60:139-51

[ 2 ]

Nineteen adult CD patients on a gluten free diet were challenged with 50 g of oats per day for 12 weeks. Oats were well tolerated by most patients but several reported initial abdominal discomfort and bloating. One of the patients developed partial villous atrophy and a rash during the first oats challenge. She subsequently improved on an oats free diet but developed subtotal villous atrophy and dramatic dermatitis during a second challenge. Five of the patients showed positive levels of interferon gamma mRNA after challenge. No wheat was detected in the oats. Some concerns therefore remain with respect to the safety of oats for coeliacs. (Lundin 2003 ref.11035 3)

Lundin KE, Nilsen EM, Scott HG, Loberg EM, Gjoen A, Bratlie J, Skar V, Mendez E, Lovik A, Kett K. Oats induced villous atrophy in coeliac disease. Gut 2003;52(11):1649-52

[ 3 ]

Without exception, in the most scientifically rigorous study on the safety of oats, no adverse effects associated with the regular consumption of moderate amounts of oats included in a gluten-free diet for Coeliac disease, could be found. However, there are concerns among some authorities on celiac disease that even if oats themselves are safe, they nonetheless may be contaminated with wheat, rye, or barley. (Thompson 2003 ref.7522 1) (See Gluten).

Thompson T. Oats and the gluten-free diet. J Am Diet Assoc 2003;103(3):376-9

[ 4 ]

This study provides evidence of the long term safety of oats as part of a coeliac diet in adult patients with coeliac disease. (Janatuinen 2002 ref.7581 1)

Janatuinen EK, Kemppainen TA, Julkunen RJ, Kosma VM, Maki M, Heikkinen M, Uusitupa MI. No harm from five year ingestion of oats in coeliac disease. Gut 2002;50(3):332-5

[ 5 ]

Antiendomysial antibodies (EMAs), which are highly sensitive and specific for celiac disease, are produced by intestinal mucosa. This study’s objective was to better define the controversial role of oats in celiac disease to determine whether oats can be safely included in a gluten-free diet. An in vitro model was used to test whether oats induce EMA production in supernatant fluid from cultured duodenal mucosa specimens collected from 13 treated celiac disease patients. The authors conclude that because the in vitro challenge with PT-avenin and its C fraction did not induce EMA production in treated celiac disease patients, it appears that oats have no harmful effect on celiac disease. Thus, oats can be safely included in a gluten-free diet. (Picarelli 2001 ref.4243 2)

Picarelli A, Di Tola M, Sabbatella L, Gabrielli F, Di Cello T, Anania MC, et al. Immunologic evidence of no harmful effect of oats in celiac disease. Am J Clin Nutr 2001;74(1):137-40

[ 6 ]

Oats are safe and well tolerated by adults with coeliac disease and dermatitis herpetiformis, though the risk of wheat contamination of commercial oat products remains a cause of concern. (Hallert 1999 ref.7587 1)

Hallert C, Olsson M, Storsrud S, Lenner RA, Kilander A, Stenhammar L. Oats can be included in gluten-free diet. [Swedish] Lakartidningen 1999;96(30-31):3339-40

[ 7 ]

Compared with controls, significantly elevated IgA antibody titers against gliadin, soy, HAV (salt extracted antigens of oat flour) and ovalbumin were found IgA nephropathy patients. (Kovacs 1996 ref.7593 3)

Kovacs T, Mette H, Per B, Kun L, Schmelczer M, Barta J, Jean-Claude D, Nagy J. Relationship between intestinal permeability and antibodies against food antigens in IgA nephropathy. [Hungarian] Orv Hetil 1996;137(2):65-9

Occupational reactions

[ 1 ]

The aim of this study was to investigate the sensitization of wheat flour and other baking allergens (oat, barley, and rye flour) in traditional bakers and in cleaners in a big hospital in the same area. (Karkoulias 2007 ref.21596 2)

Karkoulias K, Patouchas D, Alahiotis S, Tsiamita M, Vrodakis K, Spiropoulos K. Specific sensitization in wheat flour and contributing factors in traditional bakers. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2007 May-Jun;11(3):141-8.

[ 2 ]

Cough, wheezing, shortness of breath, fever, stuffy nose, and skin itching/rash on exposure to grain dust. May also develop "grain fever". (Manfreda 1986 ref.1888 0) (This may not be an IgE reaction)

Manfreda J, Holford-Strevens V, Cheang M, Warren CP Acute symptoms following exposure to grain dust in farming. Environ Health Perspect 1986;66:73-80

[ 3 ]

Baker's asthma. Allergy to rice may also occur uncommonly in bakers. (Block 1984 ref.239 81)

Block G, Tse KS, Kijek K, Chan H, ChanYeung M. Baker's asthma: Studies of the cross-antigenicity between different cereal grains. Clin Allergy 1984;14:177-185

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Allergy Advisor  - Food Additive and Preservative Allergy and Intolerance Database