Citrus sinensis - sweet variety
Citrus aurantium - sour variety
Oranges, with orange-coloured peels and juicy fruit in separable quarter-moon-shaped sections, come from an evergreen tree growing to 9m. Oranges are the most important commercial citrus fruit. They were cultivated over 3,000 years ago in China. They now also thrive around the world in warm-climate areas including Portugal, Spain, North Africa and in the United States (the world's largest producer). Spain and Israel are leaders in orange exports. The many varieties (Mardarin, Tangerine, Blood Orange, etc.) fall under the basic categories of loose-skinned and tight-skinned, and sweet and bitter (the latter not eaten raw and on its own but used as a flavoring in processed foods).
The fruit is often eaten fresh and raw. The juice is also extracted and sold fresh and as frozen concentrate, or employed as flavouring in jellies, ice cream etc. The rind serves as flavouring in cakes, marmalade and other sweets. The flowers are cooked as a vegetable or made into a tea. Oranges are high in vitamin C and flavanoids. They contain thiamin, folate and pectin, which may lower blood cholesterol levels. The fruit, juice and rind are folk remedies for many ailments.
An essential oil from the peel is used as a food flavouring and also in perfumery and medicines. Some of the plants more recent applications are as sources of anti-oxidants and chemical exfoliants in specialised cosmetics.
A Bet v 6-related food allergen - PCBER - has been detected. (Karamloo 2001 ref.6910 3)
An increased IgG antibody level to foods, especially egg white, orange, and mixture of wheat and rice, indicates an increased risk of having IgE to cat, dog, mite, egg and/or milk allergens. (Eysink 2002 ref.6618 3)
IGE AND IMMUNE:
Approximately 3% of Finnish children aged 3 years were allergic to citrus fruit. (Saarinen 1980 ref.7656 4)
Allergic reactions. (Ratner 1952 ref.224 90) Nausea, pruritis, abdominal cramping, abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhoea, oral itching, angioedema, dyspnoea, bronchospasm, rhinitis, laryngeal oedema, urticaria, hypotension and anaphylaxis. Oral allergy syndrome. (Ortolani 1989 ref.39 121)
Food allergy in a 4-year-old child with multifood allergy. (Pajno 2002 ref.7505 2)
Contact dermatitis. (Kashirskii 1984 ref.2411 8)
Food-dependant exercise-induced anaphylaxis in a 12 year-old boy. Angioedema was the main symptom and was accentuated by ingestion of an orange prior to exercise. (Debavelaere 1989 ref.6611 4)
In a Spanish study of 1,419 patients aged 1 year to 18 years of age with allergy, fish, milk, seafood, soy and orange (39%) had the highest frequency of positive skin specific IgE tests to these foods. (Avila 2002 ref.6895 3)
Reactions may be due to other substances present, e.g., aromatic substances, tyramine. Orange seed contains highly potent allergens, which may induce orange sensitivity due to careless chewing of orange seeds. The major allergenic components of orange reside in orange seeds instead of orange juice. (Zhu 1989 ref.582 65)
The presence of specific IgE and IgG antibodies against the oranges Citrus aurantium sinensis and Citrus silension were studied in 41 atopic and 20 non-atopic children aged 8-12 years. The 41 atopic patients were selected as a result of an acute episode of hives and/or sneezing following a provocation test with 150 ml orange juice. Skin prick tests, serum specific IgE and IgG RAST were performed in both groups. 36 of the 41 patients were skin prick test positive to orange. RAST was positive in 34 of the 41. A citrus fruit-exclusion diet was maintained for 180 days. The comparison of the results before and after the diet showed no significant changes in skin reactivity and RAST values, and even a slight increase was recorded in the latter. We have attempted to explain these puzzling findings. (Alonso 1994 ref.1325 5)
This study shows that ingestion of fresh orange juice per se did not heighten nonspecific bronchial hyperreactivity. (Yap 1990 ref.2667 8)
Common cause of allergy, especially in children. (Kajosaari 1982 ref.1022 1)
Oranges are considered to be common allergenic fruits in China and may induce severe food allergy in sensitive individuals. In 26 orange-sensitive patients, intradermal tests with extracts of orange juice and seeds were performed in 16 patients. The authors report that the major allergenic components of orange reside in orange seeds instead of orange juice. Systemic reactions developed in 5 patients after intradermal tests with orange seed extracts. The authors conclude that orange seed contains high potent allergens which may induce orange sensitivity due to careless chewing of orange seeds. (Zhu 1989 ref.582 65)
The 10 chief offenders among food allergens are cow's milk, chocolate and cola (the kola nut family), corn, eggs, the pea family (chiefly peanut, which is not a nut), citrus fruits, tomato, wheat and other small grains, cinnamon and artificial food colors. (Speer 1976 ref.1025 3)
A Spanish study reports that the most common food allergy found to be associated with recurrent otitis media with effusion was milk, egg, beans, citrus, and tomato, and that elimination of the food diet led to a significant amelioration of the otitis in the majority of patients. (Arroyave 2000 ref.7020 1)
Atopic dermatitis in children. (Stogmann 1996 ref.7646 3)
A significant association exists between recurrent serous otitis media and food allergy was demonstrated in 81 of 104 patients. An elimination diet resulted in a significant amelioration of the disease in 86% of the patients and a challenge diet provoked recurrence of symptoms in 94%. The highest frequency was seen with milk, wheat, egg, peanut, soy and corn, and <10% were seen with orange, tomato, chicken and apple. (Nsouli 1994 ref.7725 6)
Food industry, farming
Delayed reactions from orange and lemon peel and onion using scratch-chamber and open application techniques in 80 hand dermatitis patients, 55 of whom were food handlers. (Niinimaki 1987 ref.2344 4)
Many cases of dermatitis seen in the industry are due to contact with the peel and oil, and not with the juice.
A report on a bartender with hand dermatitis had allergic contact sensitivity to the skin of lemon, lime, and orange but not to their juices. Although most reported cases of citrus peel allergy are due to d-limonene, for our patient, reactions to patch tests for geraniol and citral, two minor components of citrus peel oil, were positive, whereas those for d-limonene were negative. (Cardullo 1989 ref.7732 1)
Nineteen percent of about 490 patients with classical or common migraine reported that headaches can be precipitated by chocolate, 18% by cheese and 11% by citrus fruit, and a highly significant majority of these patients were sensitive to all three foods. (Peatfield 1984 ref.1935 1) In 60 migraine patients, the commonest foods causing reactions were wheat (78%), orange (65%), eggs (45%), tea and coffee (40% each), chocolate and milk (37%) each), beef (35%), and corn, cane sugar, and yeast (33% each). (Grant 1979 ref.1242 1)
Orange juice leads to a significant increase of urinary pH and citric acid excretion. (Hesse 1993 ref.1824 6)
Gustatory sweating due to orange juice. (Freeman 1998 ref.966 43)
Orange juice can cause reflux esophagitis (heartburn). (Price 1978 ref.1023 4)
Phytophotodermatitis may result from coumarins such as bergapten contained in the Orange skin. (Egan 1993 ref.1057 6) Bergapten is sometimes added to tanning preparations since it promotes pigmentation in the skin.
Obstruction of the small intestine due to orange and tangerine. (Skala 1976 ref.8636 3)
Information supplied from an abridged section of:
Allergy Advisor - Zing Solutions
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