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  Substance Info: (and synonyms)
Poppy seed / Opium poppy

Background Info:

Poppy is an annual herb native to Southeastern Europe and western Asia. There are wild and cultivated varieties. Also known as opium poppy, the species is cultivated extensively in many countries, including Iran, Turkey, Holland, Poland, Romania, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, India, Canada, and many Asian and Central and South American countries.

The plant reaches a height of 1.2 meters, the erect plant can have white, pink, red, or purple flowers. Seeds range in color from white to a slate shade, blue-black that is called blue in commercial classifications.

A latex containing several important alkaloids is obtained from immature seed capsules one to three weeks after flowering. Incisions are made in the walls of the green seed pods, and the milky exudation is collected and dried. Opium and the isoquinoline alkaloids morphine, codeine, noscapine, papaverine, and thebaine are isolated from the dried material. The alkaloid substances can also be found in flower petals. In addition to codeine and morphine, narcotine (noscapine), papaverine, and thebaine were found in Indian and Netherlands poppy seeds (Papaver somniferum L). The concentrations of codeine, morphine, thebaine, papaverine, and narcotine were 44, 167, 41, 67, and 230 micrograms/g in Indian poppy seeds, and were 1.8, 39, 1.0, 0.17, 0.84 micrograms/g in Netherlands poppy seeds, respectively. (Paul 1996 ref.7427 1)

The poppy seeds and fixed oil that can be expressed from the seed are not narcotic, because they develop after the capsule has lost the opium-yielding potential. However, they are still present and can be detected in urine sampling.

Poppy seeds are used as a condiment with baked goods and pastries for their nutty odor and flavor. Poppy oil is widely used as an edible cooking oil. The oil is also used in the manufacture of paints, varnishes, and soaps. Opium is used in the production of morphine, codeine, other alkaloids, and deodorized forms of opium. Morphine is the raw material from which heroin is obtained. Poppy plants are important as ornamental plants in flower gardens.

Poppy is also regarded as an important medicinal plant. Traditionally, the dry opium was considered an astringent, antispasmodic, aphrodisiac, diaphoretic, expectorant, hypnotic, narcotic, and sedative. Poppy has been used against toothaches and coughs. The ability of opium from poppy to serve as an analgesic is well known. Opium and derivatives of opium are used in the pharmaceutical industry as narcotic analgesics, hypnotics, and sedatives. These compounds are also used as antidiarrheals, antispasmodics, and antitussives. Opium and the drugs derived from opium are addictive and can have toxicological effects.

Papaver rhoeus L., known as corn or field poppy, is an annual herb native to Europe and Asia. Extracts of the plant are used in medicine and beverages. The alkaloids rhoeadine, morphine, and papaverine have been reported in this species. Papaver orientale L., formerly Papaver bracteatum Lindl., is a morphine-free alkaloid source used for medicinal purposes. Mexican or prickly poppy, Argemone mexicana L., has been reported to have toxicological properties but no substantial medicinal uses have been recorded.

Poppy seed is generally recognized as safe for human consumption as a spice or a natural flavoring.

 

Adverse Reactions:

IMMUNE REACTIONS


[ 1 / 21 ]

The diagnosis of anaphylactic reactions due to opiates during anaesthesia can be difficult, since in most cases various drugs may have been administered. Detection of specific IgE to poppy seed might be a marker for sensitisation to opiates in allergic people and heroin-abusers. Heroin abusers and patients who suffered severe reactions during anaesthesia and analgesia were selected from a database of 23,873 patients. 149 patients and 200 controls were included. All patients with positive prick to opiates showed positive prick and IgE to poppy seeds, but not to morphine or pholcodine IgE. Among drug-abusers, 13/42 patients (31%) presented opium hypersensitivity confirmed by challenge tests. Among non-drug abusers, sensitisation to opiates was higher in people allergic to tobacco (25%), P<.001. Prick tests and IgE against poppy seed had a good sensitivity (95.6% and 82.6%, respectively) and specificity (98.5% and 100%, respectively) in the diagnosis of opiate allergy. Therefore opiates may be significant allergens. Drug-abusers and people sensitised to tobacco are at risk. (Armentia 2011 ref.26826 7)

Reference:
Armentia A, Ruiz-Munoz P, Quesada JM, Postigo I, Herrero M, Martin-Gil FJ, Gonzalez-Sagrado M, Martin B, Castrodeza J. Clinical value of morphine, pholcodine and poppy seed IgE assays in drug-abusers and allergic people. Allergol Immunopathol (Madr ) 2011 Sep 20;



[ 2 / 21 ]

A 17-year-old boy presented with a history of a generalized reaction soon after eating a poppy seed cake. The reaction consisted of acute abdominal pain quickly followed by diffuse urticaria and low blood pressure. He improved after being promptly treated with adrenaline and corticosteroids, but about an hour afterwards he complained again of severe abdominal pains that subsided after receiving a new dose of adrenaline. A couple of weeks later, he felt a tingling and burning sensation in his mouth after eating cheesecake. He remembered that this cake was close to a poppy seed cake. Raw poppy seed extract was highly positive and also produced a transient mild reaction consisting of headaches and abdominal pain. Serum specific IgE was 28.4 kU/L and to to hazelnuts (35.10 kU/L), Brazil nuts (10 kU/L), sesame (15.20 kU/L), and tomato (9.23 kU/L). he reported eating sesame products and tomato without problems, these reactions were deemed clinically nonrelevant. (Panasoff 2008 ref.22126 2)

Reference:
Panasoff J. Poppy seed anaphylaxis. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol 2008;18(3):224-5



[ 3 / 21 ]

This report reviews the current literature focusing on allergic reactions to foods by inhalation, where these allergens may become aerosolized during food preparation. (James 2007 ref.20050 0)

Reference:
James JM, Crespo JF. Allergic reactions to foods by inhalation. Curr Allergy Asthma Rep 2007 Jun;7(3):167-174



[ 4 / 21 ]

A report on a 16-year-old boy who has developed erythema and angioedema, conjunctivitis, and dyspnea due to inhalation of poppy seed. Although he had urticaria, angioedema, and dyspnea after ingestion of chickpea and lentil when he was 7 years old, he could eat these foods without any reaction now. Skin-prick tests were positive for poppy seed, hazelnut, and chickpea. The concentration of specific IgE for poppy seed, hazelnut, and peanut were 3.36 kU/L, 1.5 kU/L, and 6.17 kU/L, respectively. This is the first report on inhalative allergy to the poppy seed. (Keskin 2006 ref.15721 3)

Reference:
Keskin O, Sekerel BE. Poppy seed allergy: a case report and review of the literature. Allergy Asthma Proc 2006 Jul;27(4):396-398



[ 5 / 21 ]

IgE-mediated sensitization to poppy seeds is rare, but, if present, clinical symptoms are usually severe. A 17-year-old female, after taking a single bite from a poppy seed cake, experienced 10 minutes later, an anaphylactic reaction with nausea, heat sensation, abdominal pain and dyspnea, and subsequent loss of consciousness. She had previously developed oral swelling and itching following ingestion of poppy seed rolls as well as of sesame rolls for 10 years. In addition, a severe bullous allergic contact conjunctivitis had developed after she had removed her contact lenses following serving a dinner with poppy seed rolls. Skin prick tests with saline-extracted allergens from freshly ground poppy and sesame seed as well as buckwheat and brazil nut were strongly positive. Allergen-specific IgE against poppy seed was 287 kU/1, hazelnut (56.5 kU/1), sesame (20.8 kU/1), buckwheat (17.4 kU/1), brazil nut (18.9 kU/1), pistachio (16.3 kU/1), cashew nut (9.5 kU/1), almond (5.4 kU/1), rye pollen (2.53 kU/1) and grass pollen (4.09 kU/1). Oral food challenge with up to 10 g of unground poppy seeds caused no clinical reaction. Oral administration of 1 g of ground poppy seeds led to urticaria, heat sensation, pruritus, conjunctivitis and dyspnea. Tryptase rose 3-fold within 3 h. Allergological workup led to the identification of a novel cross-sensitization with buckwheat. (Oppel 2006 ref.14013 6)

Reference:
Oppel T, Thomas P, Wollenberg A. Cross-sensitization between poppy seed and buckwheat in a food-allergic patient with poppy seed anaphylaxis. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2006 Apr 5;140(2):170-173



[ 6 / 21 ]

Two cases of hypersensitivity to poppy seeds are presented: in a 21-year-old woman and 32-year-old man in whom life-threatening symptoms and signs of anaphylaxis (SSA) developed after consumption of poppy seeds in various situations, e.g in the street after consumption of a roll with poppy seeds or a cake prepared on a moulding board on which poppy seeds were previously squeezed. Serum specific IgE for poppy seeds were negative in the female and class 2 for the man. (Bant 2005 ref.16299 2)

Reference:
Bant A, Kruszewski J, Droszcz W, Stepien K. Hypersensitivity to poppy seeds. [Polish] Wiad Lek 2005;58(7-8):447-50.



[ 7 / 21 ]

A 52-year-old patient who, for the fist time in his life, developed epigastric pain, angioedema, and respiratory distress a few minutes after eating a piece of poppy cake. He required emergency care. He had no symptoms of atopy. Skin prick test to poppy was positive and serum specific IgE was 1.69 lU/ml, (class 2). Skin tests were positive for hazelnut, walnut, and almond) without clinical relevance. Prick tests were positive with raw and baked poppy seed, suggesting the thermostability of the relevant antigen. (Frantzen 2000 ref.7423 5)

Reference:
Frantzen B, Brocker EB, Trautmann A. Immediate-type allergy caused by poppy seed. Allergy 2000;55(1):97-8



[ 8 / 21 ]

Anaphylaxis (Richter 2000 ref.3708 4)

Reference:
Richter J, Susicky P Latex allergy. Cesk Slov Oftalmol 2000;56(2):129-31



[ 9 / 21 ]

Occupational exposure to latex allergens with a history of anaphylactic reaction to poppy seed and reaction to the antigens of apples, oranges, tangerines, peanuts and bananas, and demonstrated by serum specific IgE. A marked reaction was initiated after the use of a shampoo containing volatile banana oil. (Richter 2000 ref.8754 2)

Reference:
Richter J, Susický P. Latex allergy. [Czech] Cesk Slov Oftalmol 2000;56(2):129-31



[ 10 / 21 ]

Food-dependant exercise-induced anaphylaxis in a 46-year-old man who had experienced four episodes of generalized urticaria, all occurring within 1 hour after ingestion of a poppy-seed cake. Although he had eaten this cake every Friday for about a year, these episodes only occurred in combination with exercise. Prick test was positive. Specific IgE was 13.4 kU/l for poppy seed. Oral challenge without exercise was negative. On follow up, the patient reported that he had continued eating poppy seed cake, but only in combination with gardening had generalized urticaria occurred. (Kutting 2000 ref.6601 1)

Reference:
Kütting B, Brehler R. Exercise-induced anaphylaxis. Allergy 2000;55:585-586



[ 11 / 21 ]

Poppy seeds in food can induce immediate-type allergic reactions ranging from mild local symptoms to severe anaphylactic reactions. This study reports on 11 patients with adverse reactions after ingestion of poppy seed. All were RAST-CAP positive for poppy (levels not indicated). Skin prick test to commercial poppy extracts were negative 3 patients, and RAST from 2 to 5 (PRU 3.3 to 90.2).
Symptoms included OAS in 8, vomiting in 2, abdominal pain in 2, nausea in 2, diarrhoea in 1, rhinoconjunctivis in 2, rhinitis in 1, pruritus in 3, exacerbation of atopic dermatitis in 4, cough in 1, urticaria in 1, exanthema in 1, wheezing in 3, flush in 1, eczema in 1, and anaphylaxis in 1. 9 also had adverse reactions to nuts, and some to other foods including cinnamon, sesame, kiwi, orange, lemon, mustard, soya, egg, pea, celeriac, apple, strawberry and fish. (Jensen-Jarolim 1999 ref. 4072 7)

Reference:
Jensen-Jarolim E, Gerstmayer G, Kraft D, Scheiner O, Ebner H, Ebner C Serological characterization of allergens in poppy seeds. Clin Exp Allergy 1999;29(8):1075-9



[ 12 / 21 ]

Severe systemic reactions caused from poppy seed ingestion. Skin testing and the prick-prick test were positive. Moreover, a RAST assay was conducted with an extract of fresh food, confirming the presence of specific IgE to poppy seed. (Crivellaro 1999 ref.7425 3)

Reference:
Crivellaro M, Bonadonna P, Dama A, Senna GE, Mezzelani P, Mistrello G, Passalacqua G. Severe systemic reactions caused by poppy seed. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol 1999;9(1):58-9



[ 13 / 21 ]

Anaphylaxis. Cross-reactive IgE binding to proteins with molecular mass of 10-12 kD between sesame and poppy protein extracts was demonstrated, suggesting that either Ses i 1 or Ses i 2 cross-reacts with a 2S albumin from poppy seed. (Asero 1999 ref.7446 1)

Reference:
Asero R, Mistrello G, Roncarolo D, Antoniotti PL, Falagiani P. A case of sesame seed-induced anaphylaxis. Allergy 1999;54(5):526-7



[ 14 / 21 ]

An atopic patient who presented with a history of contact urticaria and angioedema after contact with poppy flowers. (Gamboa 1997 ref.7426 2)

Reference:
Gamboa PM, Jauregui I, Urrutia I, Gonzalez G, Barturen P, Antepara I. Allergic contact urticaria from poppy flowers (Papaver rhoeas). Contact Dermatitis 1997;37(3):140-1



[ 15 / 21 ]

Three patients are described who experienced severe allergic immediate-type reaction to poppy-seeds. (Gloor 1995 ref.1255 4)

Reference:
Gloor M, Kagi M, Wüthrich B Poppyseed anaphylaxis. [German] Schweiz Med Wochenschr 1995;125(30):1434-7



[ 16 / 21 ]

Poppyseed anaphylaxis. 3 patients with a severe allergic immediate-type reaction to poppy-seeds, diagnosed from clinical findings, skin tests and specific IgE antibodies. Specific IgE for poppy seed was 2.24, 100 and 28 in the three patients. Specific IgE for sesame seed was 1.56, 36.2 and 0.5 respectively.
Patient 1: 10 mins after ingesting poppy seed, pruritus in the mouth and posterior pharynx, followed by shortness of breath, swelling of the entire left face and itchiness of both hands and soles of the feet.
Patient 2: 2 hours after ingesting a poppy seed cake, onset of coughing, rhintis, ear pain, severe respiratory distress and generalized urticaria occured.
Patient 3: Within 10 minutes after eating a poppy seed cake, onset of among other, breathlessness, vomiting, generalized erythema and facial swelling. (Gloor 1995 ref.730 81)

Reference:
Gloor M, Kägi M, Wüthrich B. Poppyseed anaphylaxis. [Mohnsamenanaphylaxie] [German] Schweiz Med Wochenschr 1995;125(30):1434-7



[ 17 / 21 ]

Anaphylaxis. A 27-year-old woman with atopic dermatitis all her life was seen for Quinckes edema (angioedema). She had never been able to eat tomato because of worsening of her eczema. She first experienced an allergic reaction after eating bread garnished with poppy seed when she was 10 years old. She experienced further episodes. She experienced a severe episode with breathing difficulties and swelling of her throat when eating ice cream with poppy seed topping, and similarly after eating Indian food with ingredients unknown to her. A crude extract of ground poppy seed gave a marked skin prick test reaction. A positive RAST reaction to poppy seed (class 5) was documented, and to rice (class 3) and tomato (class 2). (Kalyoncu 1993 ref.430 43)

Reference:
Kalyoncu AF, Stalenheim G. Allergy to poppy seed. Allergy 1993;48:295



[ 18 / 21 ]

A patient with an immediate type hypersensitivity reaction against poppy seed is reported. Clinical symptoms consisted of swelling of the oral mucosa, vomiting, respiratory distress, and urticaria. Specific IgE antibodies were demonstrable by RAST (RAST Class 3.3 (7,70 PRU/ml)). (Braun 1988 ref.289 34)

Reference:
Braun W, Kövary PM. Poppy seed allergy. [German] Z Hautkr 1988;63(4):344



[ 19 / 21 ]

In this study, 102 patients with the initial diagnosis of idiopathic anaphylaxis were evaluated with a battery of 79 food-antigen skin prick tests selected to include foods reported or suspected of provoking anaphylaxis. Thirty-two patients (31%) had positive tests to one or more food antigens. In five of these patients, subsequently eating a food that elicited a positive test provoked an anaphylactic reaction. Two patients eliminated the foods completely, stopped having reactions, and refused challenge. In these seven patients, 10 different antigens provoked anaphylaxis: aniseed, cashew nut, celery, flaxseed, hops, mustard, mushroom, shrimp, sunflower, and walnut. We conclude that a battery of selected food-antigen skin prick tests provided a useful method for identifying an offending antigen in these patients and that some (7% in our series) cases of "idiopathic" anaphylaxis by history are not truly idiopathic.
The 10 antigens with positive clinical correlation
Antigens A B C
Aniseed 1 5 20
Cashew nut 1 2 50
Celery 2 4 50
Flaxseed 1 1 100
Hops 1 2 50
Mushroom 1 3 33
Mustard 2 3 66
Shrimp 1 3 33
Sunflower seed 1 3 33
Walnut 1 1 100
A = Total No. of positive skin tests with positive correlation
B = Total No. of positive skin tests
C = Percent of positive skin tests with positive correlation

Total number of positive skin prick tests.
2 - Almond
5 - Aniseed
1 - Artichoke
1 - Baker's yeast
1 - Beet
1 - Brazil nut
2 - Brewer's yeast
1 - Caraway seed
2 - Cashew nut
5 - Castor bean
4 - Celery
8 - Chamomile
2 - Chestnut
1 - Chicory
1 - Clam
2 - Coconut
1 - Cottonseed
2 - Crab
1 - Fennel
4 - Filbert (hazelnut)
I - Flaxseed
1 - Garbanzo bean
2 - Ginger
1 - Halibut
1 - Honey
2 - Hops
3 - Horseradish
1 - Lentil
1 - Lima beans
2 - Lobster
2 - Mango
1 - Milk
5 - Millet
3 - Mushroom
3 - Mustard
1 - Nutmeg
2 - Pea
1 - Pistachio
3 - Poppy seed
2 - Sesame seed
3 - Shrimp
3 - Sunflower
1 - Thyme
1 - Tumeric
1 - Walnut
None for Allspice, Apple, Banana, Bay leaf, Black pepper, Buckwheat, Cantaloupe, Chicken, Chili pepper, Chocolate, Cinnamon, Clove, Cod, Corn, Cumin seed, Dill seed, Egg, Garlic, Juniper berry, Orange, Oyster, Peach, Peanut, Potato, Psyllium seed, Raspberry, Sage, Salmon, Soybean, Strawberry, Sweet potato, Tangerine, Tapioca, Vanilla.
7 patients with positive clinical correlation to a SPT
1 : Aniseed
2 : Shrimp
3 : Mustard, flaxseed
4 : Celery, hops
5 : Celery, mustard, sunflower
6 : Walnut, cashew nut
7 : Mushroom
(Stricker 1986 ref.9 3606)

Reference:
Stricker WE, Anorve Lopez E, Reed CE. Food skin testing in patients with "idiopathic anaphylaxis". J Allergy Clin Immunol 1986;77:516-519



[ 20 / 21 ]

Anaphylactic reactions after consumption of poppy cake first reported. Clinical symptoms ranged from itching around the mouth and lips, nausea, and dyspnea to anaphylactic reactions.Diagnosis was confirmed by prick test and RAST. Positive skin reactions to several nut allergens were found, probably representing cross-reactivity between nuts and poppy seed. (Wagner 1981 ref.23463 7) (In: Frantzen 2000 ref.7423 5)

Reference:
Wagner G, Ring J. Anaphylaktische Reaktionen durch NuB- und Mohnallergie. Notfallmedizin 1981;7:694-698.



[ 21 / 21 ]

The prevalence of allergy is increasing, probably due to increased number of vegetarian dishes.

Reference:
Editor Comment Editorial comment, common knowledge, or still to add - -




Non-Immune reactions


[ 1 ]

Poppy seed was used as an ingredient in a typical cake and was ingested by nine volunteers. Several urine specimens contained morphine with concentrations higher than 1 microg/mL, and peak values of approximately 10.0 microg/mL were detected. Because the International Olympic Committee set a cutoff limit for morphine at 1 microg/mL, high-performance athletes could possibly test positive in doping control after consumption of products containing poppy seeds. (Thevis 2003 ref.7421 1) Urine concentration of greater than 0.3 mg/L can persists for as long as 35 h after consumption. (Pettit 1987 ref.7432 4)

A patient presenting with dependence on opium poppy tea infusion is reported. Poppy tea drinking, although previously described in certain parts of the UK, rarely presents in the form of a dependence syndrome. (Unnithan 1993 ref.7429 4)

Danish poppy capsules contain 0.3-5 mg morphine per capsule and the content of morphine in opium exuded from the capsules may amount to 24%. This has resulted in misuse as both fresh and dried poppy capsules have been used for the production of "opium tea". During the period 1982-1985, seven casualties occurred among drug addicts in Denmark which were solely or partly caused by these opium poppies. (Steentoft 1988 ref.7431 1)

Three white poppy seed samples of Papaver somniferum L were found to contain total morphine (free and bound) in the range 58.4 to 62.2 micrograms/g seeds and total codeine (free and bound) in the range 28.4 to 54.1 micrograms/g seeds. Soaking seeds in water was found to remove 45.6 per cent of the free morphine and 48.4 per cent of the free codeine. In ingesting a curry meal or two containing various amounts of washed seeds (morphine intake: 200.4 to 1002 micrograms; codeine intake: 95.9 to 479.5 micrograms), the urinary morphine levels were found to be in the range 0.12 to 1.27 micrograms/ml urine and urinary codeine levels in the range 0.04 to 0.73 micrograms/ml urine. In any large scale screening for abuse of opiate drugs, the possibility of urinary alkaloids arising from consuming food containing poppy seeds must be considered and, if possible, eliminated. (Lo 1992 ref.10050 3)

Reference:
Reorganization process. Data in process of being reorganized. Editorial staff 2006



[ 2 ]

Poppy seed was used as an ingredient in a typical cake and was ingested by nine volunteers. Several urine specimens contained morphine with concentrations higher than 1 microg/mL, and peak values of approximately 10.0 microg/mL were detected. Because the International Olympic Committee set a cutoff limit for morphine at 1 microg/mL, high-performance athletes could possibly test positive in doping control after consumption of products containing poppy seeds. (Thevis 2003 ref.7421 1)

Reference:
Thevis M, Opfermann G, Schanzer W. Urinary concentrations of morphine and codeine after consumption of poppy seeds. J Anal Toxicol 2003;27(1):53-6



[ 3 ]

A patient presenting with dependence on opium poppy tea infusion is reported. Poppy tea drinking, although previously described in certain parts of the UK, rarely presents in the form of a dependence syndrome. (Unnithan 1993 ref.7429 4)

Reference:
Unnithan S, Strang J. Poppy tea dependence. Br J Psychiatry 1993;163:813-4



[ 4 ]

Three white poppy seed samples of Papaver somniferum L were found to contain total morphine (free and bound) in the range 58.4 to 62.2 micrograms/g seeds and total codeine (free and bound) in the range 28.4 to 54.1 micrograms/g seeds. Soaking seeds in water was found to remove 45.6 per cent of the free morphine and 48.4 per cent of the free codeine. In ingesting a curry meal or two containing various amounts of washed seeds (morphine intake: 200.4 to 1002 micrograms; codeine intake: 95.9 to 479.5 micrograms), the urinary morphine levels were found to be in the range 0.12 to 1.27 micrograms/ml urine and urinary codeine levels in the range 0.04 to 0.73 micrograms/ml urine. In any large scale screening for abuse of opiate drugs, the possibility of urinary alkaloids arising from consuming food containing poppy seeds must be considered and, if possible, eliminated. (Lo 1992 ref.10050 3)

Reference:
Lo DS, Chua TH. Poppy seeds: implications of consumption. Med Sci Law 1992;32(4):296-302



[ 5 ]

Danish poppy capsules contain 0.3-5 mg morphine per capsule and the content of morphine in opium exuded from the capsules may amount to 24%. This has resulted in misuse as both fresh and dried poppy capsules have been used for the production of "opium tea". During the period 1982-1985, seven casualties occurred among drug addicts in Denmark which were solely or partly caused by these opium poppies. (Steentoft 1988 ref.7431 1)

Reference:
Steentoft A, Kaa E, Worm K. Fatal intoxications in Denmark following intake of morphine from opium poppies. Z Rechtsmed 1988;101(3):197-204



[ 6 ]

Urine concentration of greater than 0.3 mg/L can persists for as long as 35 h after consumption. (Pettit 1987 ref.7432 4)

Reference:
Pettitt BC Jr, Dyszel SM, Hood LV. Opiates in poppy seed: effect on urinalysis results after consumption of poppy seed cake-filling. Clin Chem 1987;33(7):1251-2




Occupational reactions


[ 1 ]

OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE:
Pharmaceutical Industry

Twenty eight workers of a pharmaceutical factory producing morphine and extracting other alkaloids from shells of Papaver somniferum were studied. Six of the exposed subjects had clinical symptoms of sensitization to this allergen and positive skin tests. A bronchial provocation test was found to be positive on 4 workers and specific IgE could be found on the 6 sensitized patients by an ELISA and a RAST test using an aqueous extract of P. somniferum. A histamine release using the same antigen was also positive in the 4 samples from sensitized patients available. An SDS-PAGE of the extract revealed a major protein band with an estimated mol wt of 52,000 d. This band had the highest IgE-binding capacity as shown by immunoblotting. All these facts suggest that P. somniferum allergy is mediated by an IgE mediated mechanism and not by a pharmacological or toxic effect of the alkaloids or polyphenols. (Moneo 1993 ref.7430 4)

Reference:
Reorganization process. Data in process of being reorganized. Editorial staff 2006



[ 2 ]

Five individuals had a piece of poppy seed cake. Their urine was checked before and 2 hours after the ingestion All 5 were positive for morphine (and negative before). Positivity not only exceeded the cut-off-value recommended by the NIDA (300 ng/mL), but also the much higher cut-off level applied by the US Department of Defense (4000 ng/nL). No symptoms such as euphoria or somnolence were noticed.
Further investigations revealed that positivity for the NIDA cut-off could be obtained after the ingestion of only 2-5 g of blue poppy seeds if taken after a meal, but not if the subjects were fasted. In the same subjects when fasted, up to 12-5 g resulted in negative test results indicating the influence of a meal on absorption. (Beer 1994 ref.23420 7)

Reference:
Beer JH, Vogt A, Bernhard W. Gourmet restaurant syndrome. Lancet 1994 May 21;343(8908):1302.



[ 3 ]

Twenty eight workers of a pharmaceutical factory producing morphine and extracting other alkaloids from shells of Papaver somniferum were studied. Six of the exposed subjects had clinical symptoms of sensitization to this allergen and positive skin tests. A bronchial provocation test was found to be positive on 4 workers and specific IgE could be found on the 6 sensitized patients by an ELISA and a RAST test using an aqueous extract of P. somniferum. A histamine release using the same antigen was also positive in the 4 samples from sensitized patients available. The 6 symptomatic individuals had RAST value between 1,389 and 4,654 (units not given). An SDS-PAGE of the extract revealed a major protein band with an estimated mol wt of 52,000 d. This band had the highest IgE-binding capacity as shown by immunoblotting. All these facts suggest that P. somniferum allergy is mediated by an IgE mediated mechanism and not by a pharmacological or toxic effect of the alkaloids or polyphenols. (Moneo 1993 ref.7430 4)

Reference:
Moneo I, Alday E, Ramos C, Curiel G. Occupational asthma caused by Papaver somniferum. Allergol Immunopathol (Madr) 1993;21(4):145-8




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