See also: Cow - dander, and Bovine Serum Albumin / BSA
Domesticated cows probably originated from ancient India. Introduced into America in the 16th century and Australia about 200 years later. Allergy to beef is not common. Can be tolerated by cow'- milk-allergic individuals.
Contains valuable nutrients including iron and zinc. High intakes are linked to cancer of the colon and too much beef fat can contribute to heart disease.
See also Cow/Cow Dander.
Beef contains BSA and bovine gamma globulin (BGG). These are heat labile proteins found also in cow's milk. This may explain the different clinical responses to raw and cooked beef in milk-allergic patients. (Werfel ) 24 allergens found of which many are heat-labile and denatured during cooking (Werfel). Among the muscle proteins, tropomysosin was found to be a weak meat allergen.(Ayuso 2000 ref.3621 6) Other beef proteins that appear to be allergenic are actin and occasionally myoglobin.(Restani) Of the beef allergens, only BSA, actin, and IgG appear to be major allergens.(Ayuso 2000 ref.3621 6)
Major cow dander and cow hair allergen are also found in beef (Prahl 1981 ref.399 43)
Both proteolytic digestion and technological treatment can reduce the allergenic potential of meat products. (Fiocchi ) Heating reduces sensitization to beef and bovine serum albumin but does not abolish reactivity under home conditions. However, industrially heat-treated and freeze-dried beef may be suitable substitutes in beef-allergic children's diets (Fiocchi).
BSA, a 67 kDa, a minor allergen in milk, a major allergen in beef, a heat-labile protein.
Antigenic proteins of approximately 200 kDa, approximately 67 kDa and approximately 60 kDa have been isolated. The 67 kDa protein was shown to be bovine serum albumin (BSA). The 200 kDa and 60 kDa were presumably aggregated BGG and it's heavy chain, respectively. (Han 2000 ref.5684 7)
At least 24 protein fractions have been isolated from beef. Several protein bands in raw beef appeared to denature with heating. Bovine serum albumin and bovine gamma globulin were heat-labile in the beef extract, but six protein fractions persisted even after heating the beef extract for 2 hours at 85 degrees C. IgE from patients reacting to rare and well-cooked beef bound up to six of these heat-resistant fractions, but IgE from patients reacting only to rare beef failed to bind any of these fractions with one exception. In addition, patients reacting to rare and well-cooked beef had specific IgE to a 17.8 kd fraction, which was only weakly recognized by one patient reacting only to rare beef. (Werfel 1997 ref.609 56)
See also: Bovine Serum Albumin / BSA
IGE AND IMMUNE:
Allergic reactions. Atopic dermatitis. Bronchospasm.
Gastric irritation, nausea. Hypertension. Laryngeal oedema. Wheezing. Cutaneous and respiratory complaints. Rhinitis. Vomiting and chronic diarrhoea. Occupational protein contact dermatitis. (Iliev 1998 ref.2097 6)
The prevalence of beef allergy is estimated to be between 3 and 6.5% of children with atopic dermatitis and atopic dermatitis affects at least 5% of children. (Martelli 2002 ref.7247 3)
Ten children and two adult relatives with beef allergy were evaluated. The rate of family history of beef allergy was 67% (8/12). Three patients (two with commercial extract, and one with cooked beef) had positive skin test responses to beef. Ten (83%) patients had elevated serum IgE concentrations and the beef-specific IgE was positive in all patients. Labial food challenge was positive in four (30%) patients. Of the five patients who underwent open food challenges, three were positive and two tolerated the beef administered. (Orhan 2003 ref.7552 1)
Allergy to cows' milk protein, soya and beef were shown to be responsible for infantile colitis in a study by Jenkins et al.
According to Frederic Speer, MD, beef-sensitive patients are invariably allergic to milk.
Allergic reactions to insulin containing beef allergen. (Yoshino 1990 ref.1598 7)
Fiocchi found that of 12 children with beef allergy, 2 experienced an immediate reaction to BSA (beef) and 3 to OSA (lamb/mutton) with a DBPCFC. One other child developed severe dyspnoea, cough and asthma 3 hours after OSA challenge. Tolerance to these meats may be present in spite of positive RAST and SPT tests. There was also crossreactivity demonstrated.
Immune complex glomerulopathy (McCrory 1986 ref.1198 3)
A report from New Zealand demonstrating allergic reactions to oral, surgical and topical bovine collagen. (Mullins 1996 ref.820 56) Also probably crossreactive to bovine gelatine.
Mateo et al. report on acute recurrent pancreatitis lasting for 8-10 years, which they attribute to allergy to beef, milk, potato, fish and eggs.
A severe anaphylactic reaction with asthma, vomiting, itching, generalized urticaria, and angioedema occurred during artificial insemination in a woman with her husband's sperm. The sperm-processing medium contained bovine serum albumin (BSA) (Wuthrich 1995 ref.1605 7)
Hollander hypothesises that the Persian Gulf Syndrome (PGS) is caused by beef allergy.
Exercise-induced anaphylaxis in a 72-year-old woman, who developed generalized urticaria, Quincke oedema, shortness of breath and hypotension two hours after eating a meal containing pork and after mild physical activity (ironing) in the interim. (Biedermann 1999 ref.3192 2)
Two cases of hypersensitivity to biological adhesives made of human plasma and bovine heterologous proteins are reported in this study. (Jankowski 1992 ref.3194 7)
A patient with urticaria after eating raw cattle meat, but due to Toxocara spp. in the meat and not the meat itself. (Espana 1993 ref.2806 8)
Anaphylaxis presumed to be caused by beef containing streptomycin (Tinkelman 1984 ref.3195 5) or penicllin (Schwarz 1984 ref.3700 9)(Kanny 1994 ref.1592 5)
Beef allergy has an incidence between 3. 28% and 6.52% among children with atopic dermatitis, its incidence may be as much as 0.3% in the general population. (Fiocchi 2000 ref.3630 0)
Occupational protein contact dermatitis. (Iliev 1998 ref.2097 6)
Occupational contact urticaria. (Garansson 1981 ref.6109 7)
Two of 132 children with atopic dermatitis were positive to beef, whereas 15 were positive to cow's milk. (Sampson ) Occupational contact urticaria or chronic diarrhoea, migraine, stomach pain and other food intolerance symptoms after ingestion (Hjorth 1976 ref.400 37)
Occupational protein contact dermatitis. (Boehncke 1998 ref.2637 4) Occupational contact urticaria associated with hand eczema (Jovanovic 1992 ref.2660 2) and hand dermatitis due to occupational contact with calf's liver (Fisher 1977 ref.3701 4)
Chronic diarrhoea. (Read 1980 ref.820 75)
Mylek suggests in a Polish study that migraine attacks are produced most frequently by cow's milk (in 10 out of 17 patients); cabbage, flour and eggs in 5 patients; preservatives, cottage and Swiss cheese, porcine meat in 4 patients; colorants and chocolate in 3 patients; beef, strawberries, lemons and butter in 2 patients.
In 60 migraine patients, the commonest foods causing reactions were wheat (78%), orange (65%), eggs (45%), tea and coffee (40% each), chocolate and milk (37%) each), beef (35%), and corn, cane sugar, and yeast (33% each). (Grant 1979 ref.1242 1)
Information supplied from an abridged section of:
Allergy Advisor - Zing Solutions
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