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  Substance Info: (and synonyms)
Bell Pepper / Paprika / Green Pepper

Background Info:

Common names: Sweet Pepper, Paprika, Bell pepper, Green pepper, Hungarian Pepper, Hot Pepper, Red Pepper, Cayenne, Cayenne Pepper, Pimento, Pimiento, Chili Pepper, Mexican Chili Pepper.

Jalapeno Pepper is a variety of this species. Tabasco sauce is made from a very hot variety of Bell pepper / Green pepper.

The spice Capsicum is the fruit of the cultivated species of the genus Capsicum (family, Solanaceae), C. annuum principally, and C. frutescens L. to a lesser extent. (Govindarajan 1991 ref.7140 1)

See also: Capsaicin

Probably native of the tropics, Red Peppers are grown mainly in China; the Dominican Republic, Haiti, Hawaii, Iraq, Japan, Malaya, Mexico, Spain and Turkey. Most commercial Paprika comes from Spain, South America, California and Hungary, with the Hungarian variety considered by many to be superior. It is used as a spice in many cuisines worldwide.

Two unrelated families called pepper: Solanacea (potato family) and the Piperaceae (pepper family, including white and black pepper).

Pepper of the Solanacea family includes two species which are used mainly as vegetables: Capsicum annuum (Sweet, Green or Bell pepper), and Capsicum frutescens (the Tabasco group of Cayenne or Chili pepper). The former is mild, has a sweet flavor, and is eaten raw or cooked. See also Chilli Pepper / Chili pepper / Capsicum. Paprika is a powder made by finely grinding dried ripe Red Pepper pods.

The condiment/spice Pepper, is not a member of the Solanacea family, and may be made from unripe peppercorns from the Piper Nigrum plant or sold dried, crushed, or pickled in vinegar or brine. See Black Pepper / White Pepper.

Red Pepper (capsicum annuum), aka pimentos exist in mild and pungent varieties and are eaten accordingly, as a vegetable or as a condiment. Ripe, red berries of the fleshy, long-fruited varieties are dried before being ground into powder to make paprika. Other cultivars bear large, short-fruited square berries with rounded edges; these are eaten as vegetables.

Best variety is pink/sweet pepper which is piquant, but has no bitter aftertaste.

Not known in the wild, Red Peppers are grown in cultivated beds. The flavor of Paprika can range from mild to pungent and hot, the color from bright orange-red to deep blood-red. Peppers are a good source of dietary antioxidants, apart from other widespread compounds (flavonoids, phenolic acids, carotenoids, vitamin A, ascorbic acid, tocopherols), and also contain specific constituents such as the pungent capsaicinoids (capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, and related analogues).

Whole Capsicum annuum pods can be eaten either as a vegetable or as a condiment. Paprika is used as a seasoning and garnish for a plethora of savory dishes, and sometimes serves as a food colouring. Young leaves are steamed as a potherb or added to soups and stews. The flowers can be eaten raw or cooked.

The fruit of the Pepper may be used as a herbal remedy for a variety of conditions, including as a topical Capsicum-based product for the treatment of low back pain and otitis media. The oleoresin of capsicum may be used as a Riot control agent.

 

Adverse Reactions:

IMMUNE REACTIONS


[ 1 / 18 ]

A case report of bell pepper anaphylaxis: Could 1, 3-beta-glucanase be the culprit allergen? A 34-year-old woman presented with anaphylaxis. After eating red bell pepper she immediately experienced plantar and palmer itching, urticaria, stupor, and breathing impairment. She was hypotensive and had low oxygen saturation. One month after that, she presented with a second episode of palmer and plantar itching and skin rash, immediately after eating a sauce containing crude red peppers. She reported oral allergic syndrome to peach, walnut, and chestnut and immediate urticaria when using latex gloves. SPTs with commercial extract were positive to red pepper and tomato and negative to other Solanaceae (eggplant and potato). Positive SPTs were recorded for Artemisia vulgaris, Parietaria Judaica, and Olea Europea pollens, hazelnut, almond, chestnut, walnut, peanut, pistachio, pine nut, sun?ower seed, Rosaceae fruits (peach and apple skin, cherry, raspberry), kiwi, and latex. Prick by prick with bell pepper was positive for red pepper and negative for green pepper. Total Ig E was 106 UI/mL. Serum speci?c IgE proved positive for bell pepper (2.7 kUI/L) peach (16.6 kUI/L), peanut (10.6 kUI/L), almond (5.53 kUI/L), walnut (12.7 kUI/L), chestnut (6.21 kUI/L), and latex (15.5 kUI/L). ISAC proved sensitization to latex hevein (Hev b 6) and lipid transfer proteins (LTP) of peach (Pru p 3), mugwort (Art v 3), and hazelnut (Cor a 9). Immunoblotting showed Ig E binding bands of 30 to 35 kDa for red pepper and 10 kDa for peach. We suggest that it could be a 1,3-b-glucanase, which has been identi?ed in latex (Hev b 2, 35 kDa). It had been previously described as a cause of cross-reactivity between latex and bell pepper. (Callero 2012 ref.28520 7)

Reference:
Callero A, Perez E, Ledesma A, Martinez-Tadeo JA, Hernandez G, Rodriguez-Plata E, Garcia-Robaina JC. A case report of bell pepper anaphylaxis: Could 1, 3-beta-glucanase be the culprit allergen? Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2012 Dec;109(6):474-475



[ 2 / 18 ]

A report of a patient experiencing anaphylaxis after ingestion of raw bell pepper. The patient was also sensitized to grass and birch pollen experiencing possibly pollen-associated food allergy as a result of Bet v 1 cross-reactivity. An 11 kDa protein was indicated, which has not been described yet which may be a new allergenic structure of the bell pepper plant or a fragment of the Bet v 1-homologous bell pepper protein. (Ruger 2010 ref.25175 7)

Reference:
Ruger RD, Wagner S, Simon JC, Treudler R. Severe type 1-allergy to raw bell pepper. [German] Hautarzt 2010 Apr;61(4):339-342



[ 3 / 18 ]

The PR-5 family of thaumatin-like proteins has been identified with in vitro cross-reactivity between mountain cedar’s Jun a 3 allergen and cherry (Pru av 2), apple (Mal d 2), and paprika or bell pepper (P23) and therefore may result in symptoms of oral allergy syndrome in patients sensitised to mountain cedar tree (Jun a 3). (Webber 2010 ref.24758 7)

Reference:
Webber CM, England RW. Oral allergy syndrome: a clinical, diagnostic, and therapeutic challenge. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2010 Feb;104(2):101-108



[ 4 / 18 ]

Produce-induced contact urticaria and dermatitis: Solanaceae and Alliaceae. A 48-year-old, atopic (eczema and asthma history), female supermarket produce manager presented with a 10-year history of urticaria! lesions affecting, but not limited to, her palms, flexor surfaces of forearms, and antecubital fossae. Initially, the urticarial reactions were localized to her arms and exacerbated by occupational exposure. Later, oral and occupational skin contact would trigger more widespread urticaria affecting the face, neck, and chest, with bronchospasm, gastrointestinal discomfort, and hypotension. These reactions resulted in self-administration of subcutaneous epinephrine. e immediate-type signs and symptoms. She developed disabling anxiety, refusing to leave her home, and consuming a vegetable-free diet. Patch tests were positive for the following, divided by family:
Solanaceae
Tomato
Red bell pepper
Green bell pepper
Serrano pepper
Jalapeno
Pasilla pepper

Alliaccac
Garlic
Yellow onion
Green onion (Chive)
Leek
(Alikhan 2009 ref.23722 0)

Reference:
Alikhan A, Chan HP, Maibach HI. Produce-induced contact urticaria and dermatitis: Solanaceae and Alliaceae. Contact Dermatitis 2009 Mar;60(3):174-176



[ 5 / 18 ]

This report reviews the current literature focusing on allergic reactions to foods by inhalation, where these allergens may become aerosolized during food preparation. (James 2007 ref.20050 0)

Reference:
James JM, Crespo JF. Allergic reactions to foods by inhalation. Curr Allergy Asthma Rep 2007 Jun;7(3):167-174



[ 6 / 18 ]

An extensive study among bell pepper growers showed a prevalence of 53.8% work-related symptoms and 35.4% sensitisation to bell pepper pollen. Experiments with bees to remove pollen from bell pepper flowers have been done for a few years. The aim of this study was to investigate whether bees can reduce the pollen exposure in bell pepper greenhouses and whether this reduction results in a decrease in allergic complaints in the greenhouse workers. Eighteen greenhouses were selected for the study. In each greenhouse, pollen exposure was estimated. In 6 and 3 of the greenhouses, high, respectively low, numbers of honeybees were placed throughout the pollen season of the sweet bell pepper plant. Nine greenhouses without honeybees were used as control. At baseline, as well as after 4 and 8 months, nasal symptoms assessed with a visual analogue score and lung function parameters were used as outcome measure. Forty-four of the 133 employees invited reported work-related symptoms. High numbers of bees reduced the pollen amount in a dose-dependent way to 18% of the baseline exposure. A significant trend relationship between the visual analogue scale in nasal symptoms and the number of colonies of bees was seen. The study concludes that the interference of bees in bell pepper greenhouses significantly reduces the pollen amount. This reduction is associated with less work-related rhinitis symptoms in allergic greenhouse workers. This intervention study supports the hypothesis that allergic work-related complaints of greenhouse workers, sensitised to bell pepper pollen, are caused by occupational exposure to this pollen in the greenhouse. (de 2006 ref.15727 0)

Reference:
de Jong NW, van der Steen JJ, Smeekens CC, Blacquière T, Mulder PG, van Wijk RG, de Groot H. Honeybee interference as a novel aid to reduce pollen exposure and nasal symptoms among greenhouse workers allergic to sweet bell pepper (capsicum annuum) pollen. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2006 Aug 30;141(4):390-395



[ 7 / 18 ]

The large extent of crossreactivity among plant profilins is due to their high amino acid sequence identity (77-91%) and similar tertiary structures . While it is assumed that profilins from different species are immunologically equivalent, some studies suggest partial or even lacking IgE cross-reactivity between certain profilins. Model structures of profilins from timothy, mugwort, celery and bell pepper were compared with crystal structures of birch and latex profilins. IgE ELISAs and ELISA inhibitions using sera from 22 profilin-sensitized allergic patients were carried out. The peptide backbone conformations of all six profilins were highly similar. Nine variable epitopes and two containing high proportions of conserved residues were predicted. IgE from all sera bound to all tested profilins and the amounts were highly correlated. However, IgE inhibition experiments revealed that up to 60% of total IgE binding was mediated by species-specific epitopes. The extent of cross-reactivity among profilins from timothy, birch, latex and celery was greater than cross-reactivity to mugwort and bell pepper profilins. Patients with IgE to cross-reactive epitopes displayed allergic reactions to a greater number of plant foods than patients having IgE directed to species-specific epitopes. Therefore the large extent of cross-reactivity among plant profilins justifies using a single profilin for diagnosis. However, the fine specificity of IgE directed to variable epitopes may influence the clinical manifestation of profilin sensitization. (Radauer 2006 ref.15113 0)

Reference:
Radauer C, Willerroider M, Fuchs H, Hoffmann-Sommergruber K, Thalhamer J, Ferreira F, Scheiner O, Breiteneder H. Cross-reactive and species-specific immunoglobulin E epitopes of plant profilins: an experimental and structure-based analysis. Clin Exp Allergy 2006 Jul;36(7):920-929



[ 8 / 18 ]

This study investigated bell pepper allergens involved in the latex-fruit syndrome using sera of four patients who had clinical symptoms to latex and bell pepper. Three patients displayed IgE to profilins from bell pepper fruits and latex. Two patients possessed IgE to Hev b 2, a latex beta-1,3-glucanase, and a homologous protein in bell pepper. One patient possessed IgE reactive with a protein of 30 kDa identified by N-terminal sequencing as an l-ascorbate peroxidase and another patient to a protein of 38 kDa. Additionally, IgE binding proteins in two higher molecular weight ranges showed cross-reactive capacities. (Wagner 2004 ref.10097 3)

Reference:
Wagner S, Radauer C, Hafner C, Fuchs H, Jensen-Jarolim E, Wuthrich B, Scheiner O, Breiteneder H. Characterization of cross-reactive bell pepper allergens involved in the latex-fruit syndrome. Clin Exp Allergy 2004;34(11):1739-46.



[ 9 / 18 ]

34 patients with allergy symptoms caused by bell pepper. Thirteen (38%) reported OAS. In three patients OAS was the unique reported symptom, whereas in the remaining participants OAS was associated with rhinitis, asthma, urticaria, and atopic dermatitis. Profilin was identified as the causative molecule. (Willerroider 2003 ref.8303 7) (Mari 2005 ref.11706 5)

Reference:
Willerroider M, Fuchs H, Ballmer-Weber BK, Focke M, Susani M, Thalhamer J, Ferreira F, Wuthrich B, Scheiner O, Breiteneder H, Hoffmann-Sommergruber K. Cloning and molecular and immunological characterisation of two new food allergens, Cap a 2 and Lyc e 1, profilins from Bell pepper (Capsicum annuum) and Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2003;131(4):245-55



[ 10 / 18 ]

A study reports on 7 cases of food-dependant exercise induced-anaphylaxis. The responsible foods were wheat (2 cases), corn, barley, shrimp, apple, paprika and mustard. (Mathelier-Fusade 2002 ref. 7125 2)

Reference:
Mathelier-Fusade P, Vermeulen C, Leynadier F. Responsibility of food in exercise-induced anaphylaxis: 7 cases. [French] Ann Dermatol Venereol 2002;129(5 Pt 1):694-7



[ 11 / 18 ]

An immune-allergological study of urticaria and/or angioedema of 133 cases of 648 first patient's visits to the surgery: the family suspicion of etiology was food in 62 cases, chemical products in 39 cases, other factors (physical, stings, balloons and other manufactured products.) in 7 cases and 25 cases without a direct relation. Of 100 children diagnosed with urticaria-angioedema 67 was by food; the foods implicated in frequency order were: eggs and nuts, fruit, milk, vegetables, fish and shellfish. In second place, chemical products were responsible of urticaria in 12 children; five of them were positive in diagnosed proof (prick, oral challenge) for penicillin and amoxicillin, both from beta-lactamic group; two of them had and adverse reaction to anaesthetic agents; other two cases were after administration of vaccination and due to tetanus toxin; and three cases were due to aspirin, confirmed by oral provocation test. In 10 children the etiological agent was latex. Other etiologies were: three cutaneous reactions after stings (two by wasps and one by mosquito) three reactions due to spices (paprika, cumin, anise, mustard) and two reactions caused by manufactures products containing additives as yellow-orange. (Eseverri 1999 ref.7130 2)

Reference:
Eseverri JL, Cozzo M, Castillo M, Marin A. Round Table: Immunological urticaria mediated by IgE. [Spanish] Allergol Immunopathol (Madr) 1999;27(2):104-11



[ 12 / 18 ]

A study of 11 patients with food allergy to bell peppers to analyze bell pepper extracts for allergen composition. (Jensen-Jarolim 1998 ref.2229 5)

Reference:
Jensen-JaroliJensen-Jarolim E, Santner B, Leitner A, Grimm R, Scheiner O, Ebner C, Breiteneder H. Bell peppers (Capsicum annuum) express allergens (profilin, pathogenesis-related protein P23 and Bet v 1) depending on the horticultural strain. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 1998;116(2):103-109



[ 13 / 18 ]

In Switzerland, about 40% of patients with food allergy are sensitized to celery root, some with severe anaphylactic reactions. In analyzing 402 patients with food allergy, 23 (5.7%) had food allergy to paprika/bell pepper and four (1%) to pepper. (Wuhrich 1993 ref.9278 5) However, in an investigation of patients allergic to mugwort pollen, 52% displayed RAST classes between 1 and 3 for black pepper and paprika. (Wuhrich 1992 ref.60 131) (Etesamifar 1998 ref.9178 3)

Reference:
Wüthrich B. Zur Nahrungsmittelallergie. Häufigheit der symptome und der allergieauslösenden Nahrungsmittel bei 402 patienten - Kuhmilchallergie - Nahrungsmittel und Neurodermitis atopica. Allergologie 1993;16:280-7



[ 14 / 18 ]

in an investigation of patients allergic to mugwort pollen, 52% displayed RAST classes between 1 and 3 for black pepper and paprika. (Wuhrich 1992 ref.60 131)

Reference:
Wüthrich B, Stöger P, Johansson SGO. RAST-spezifische IgE auf Gewurze bei Sensibilisierungen gegen Allergologie 1992;15:380-383



[ 15 / 18 ]

Plasma cell gingivitis is a rare benign condition of the gingiva. It is a hypersensitivity reaction to some antigen, often flavorings or spices. The importance of this lesion is that it may cause severe gingival inflammation, discomfort, and bleeding and may mimic more serious conditions. This report outlines a case of plasma cell gingivitis which may have been brought on by the use of red peppers in cooking. (Serio 1991 ref.7139 3)

Reference:
Serio FG, Siegel MA, Slade BE. Plasma cell gingivitis of unusual origin. A case report. J Periodontol 1991;62(6):390-3



[ 16 / 18 ]

A group of 103 patients with suspected contact allergy to spices was tested with the European standard series. Among the spices, the highest numbers of reactions were found to nutmeg (28%), paprika (powdered bell pepper) (19%) and cloves (12%). Fragrance-mix turned out to be a particularly important allergen, especially for paprika, nutmeg and cloves. (van den Akker 1990 ref.1500 8)

Reference:
van den Akker TW, Roesyanto Mahadi ID, et al. Contact allergy to spices. Contact Dermatitis 1990;22(5):267-72



[ 17 / 18 ]

9 common spices were tested epicutaneously in 338 dermatological patients, 118 of whom were allergic to balsam of Peru. Positive reactions to one or more spices were seen in 50 patients all of whom except 2 were allergic to balsam of Peru. The spices giving positive reactions most often were clove, Jamaica pepper and cinnamon (cassia). 2/3 of the patients allergic to balsam of Peru or spices were women, usually suffering from hand eczema. Peroral challenge with spices was carried out in 71 patients allergic to balsam of Peru. Pompholyx on the palms and other objective symptoms were encountered in 7 cases, 3 of whom showed no reactions to spices in epicutaneous tests. 25 of 118 patients allergic to Balsam of Peru were patch test positive for Allspice (Jamaican pepper) and none of 1 of 219 not allergic to Balsam of Peru. 3 of 116 patients allergic to Balsam of Peru were patch test positive for White pepper and none of 220 not allergic to Balsam of Peru. 17 of 117 patients allergic to Balsam of Peru were patch test positive for cinnamon. 36 of 78 patients allergic to Balsam of Peru were patch test positive for clove and none of 156 not allergic to Balsam of Peru. (Niinimaaki 1984 ref.63 194)

Reference:
Niinimaki A. Delayed-type allergy to spices. Contact Dermatitis 1984;11:34-40



[ 18 / 18 ]

Capsaicin (see) present in pepper may result in bronchoconstriction.

Reference:
Editor Comment Editorial comment, common knowledge, or still to add - -




Non-Immune reactions


[ 1 ]

Present in a herbal product, it may potentially increase the risk of bleeding or potentiate the effects of warfarin therapy, through constituents such as coumarin. (Heck 2000 ref.7122 1)

Reference:
Heck AM, DeWitt BA, Lukes AL. Potential interactions between alternative therapies and warfarin. Am J Health Syst Pharm 2000;57(13):1221-7



[ 2 ]

A study reports on a lead intoxication epidemic caused by ingestion of contaminated ground paprika. One hundred forty-one adults consumed paprika contaminated with lead tetroxide (red lead). The most common clinical signs were colic and/or anemia. (Kakosy 1996 ref.7133 8)

Reference:
Kakosy T, Hudak A, Naray M. Lead intoxication epidemic caused by ingestion of contaminated ground paprika. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol 1996;34(5):507-11



[ 3 ]

Erythema-multiforme-like contact dermatitis. (Raccagni 1995 ref.7135 3)

Reference:
Raccagni AA, Bardazzi F, Baldari U, Righini MG. Erythema-multiforme-like contact dermatitis due to capsicum. Contact Dermatitis 1995;33(5):353-4



[ 4 ]

Between April and September 1993, a nationwide outbreak of salmonellosis occurred in Germany which was traced to contaminated paprika and paprika-powdered potato chips. Children below 14 years were principally affected. (Lehmacher 1995 ref.7134 5)

Reference:
Lehmacher A, Bockemuhl J, Aleksic S. Nationwide outbreak of human salmonellosis in Germany due to contaminated paprika and paprika-powdered potato chips. Epidemiol Infect 1995;115(3):501-11



[ 5 ]

A 66-year-old white man presented with a five-day history of painful erythematous papules, plaques, pustules, and hemorrhagic bullae on both hands consistent with Sweet’s syndrome. His history was remarkable for having prepared and pickled fifteen quarts of home-grown jalapeno peppers several days before the eruption occurred. (Greer 1993 ref.7137 3)

Reference:
Greer JM, Rosen T, Tschen JA. Sweet's syndrome with an exogenous cause. Cutis 1993;51(2):112-4



[ 6 ]

Eriksson found a correlation between acetylsalicylic acid intolerance and food sensitivity with some foods, e.g., nuts, strawberry, almond, green pepper, hip, chocolate, egg, cabbage, milk and wine. (Eriksson 1984 ref.327 12)

Reference:
Eriksson NE. Clustering of foodstuffs in food hypersensitivity. An inquiry study in pollen allergic patients. Allergol et immunopathol 1984;12(1):28-32.



[ 7 ]

Eriksson found a correlation between acetylsalicylic acid intolerance and sensitivity to some foods, e.g., nuts, strawberry, almond, green pepper, chocolate, egg, cabbage, milk and wine. (Eriksson 1978 ref.1247 7)

Reference:
Eriksson NE. Food sensitivity reported by patients with asthma and hay fever. Allergy 1978;33:189-196




Occupational reactions


[ 1 ]

Bell pepper employees who participated in a cross-sectional survey in 1999 were asked to take part in a follow-up study in 2007. 280 of 472 employees were available for questionnaires and in 250 employees allergy tests were performed. During the 8-year follow-up, the cumulative incidence of sensitization to bell pepper pollen was 9% and of work-related rhinitis 19%. The cumulative incidence of work-related asthma symptoms was 8%. The study concludes that the cumulative incidences for sensitization to bell pepper pollen, work-related rhinitis and asthma symptoms were 9%, 19% and 8%, respectively. Atopy and smoking are risk factors for developing work-related symptoms among workers in bell pepper horticulture. (Patiwael 2010 ref.25499 8)

Reference:
Patiwael JA, Jong NW, Burdorf A, Groot H, Gerth van WR. Occupational allergy to bell pepper pollen in greenhouses in the Netherlands, an 8-year follow-up study. Allergy 2010 Nov;65(11):1423-1429



[ 2 ]

Rhinitis symptoms among bell pepper greenhouse employees can be caused by an allergy to occupational allergens, such as bell pepper pollen and predatory mites, and common inhalant allergens. In 233 employees with rhinitis symptoms, sensitization to bell pepper pollen had a significant negative effect on all the domain and mean Quality of Life scores. Of 209 greenhouse employees whose rhinitis symptoms were associated with the flowering season of green bell pepper, skin prick testing was positive to the plant's pollen in 47%. The other allergens had no effect on QoL. A significant decrease in all the rhinitis scores was found outside the flowering period. (Groenewoud 2006 ref.13213 5)

Reference:
Groenewoud GC, de Groot H, van Wijk RG. Impact of occupational and inhalant allergy on rhinitis-specific quality of life in employees of bell pepper greenhouses in the Netherlands. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2006 Jan;96(1):92-97



[ 3 ]

In 472 bell pepper greenhouse employees, work-related symptoms were reported in 53.8% of all cases. Sensitization to the bell pepper plant was found in 35.4%. Positive reactions to leaf, stem and/or juice, however, were associated in nearly 90% with sensitization to pollen, which appeared to be most important allergen of the plant. There is a surprisingly high prevalence of work-related respiratory symptoms (53.8%) in bell pepper horticulture. In two-thirds of the employees, symptoms at work were associated with an IgE-mediated allergy due to the high and chronic exposure to bell pepper pollen. (Groenewoud 2002 ref.5670 6)

Reference:
Groenewoud GC, de Jong NW, van Oorschot-Van Nes AJ, et al. Prevalence of occupational allergy to bell pepper pollen in greenhouses in the Netherlands. Clin Exp Allergy 2002;32(3):434-40



[ 4 ]

ALLERGY TO BELL PEPPER POLLEN:
IgE against paprika pollen, but not against tomato pollen, was found in serum from 2 greenhouse workers who worked with paprika plants. A greenhouse worker, who cultivated tomato plants, had IgE against both tomato and paprika pollen. The authors conclude that the presence of IgE against paprika or tomato pollen is not restricted to workers in horticulture; IgE against these pollen can also be present in food-allergic patients who have serum IgE against paprika and/or tomato fruit. (Van Toorenenbergen 2000 ref.7021 4)

Reference:
van Toorenenbergen AW, Waanders J, Gerth Van Wijk R, Vermeulen AM. Immunoblot analysis of IgE-binding antigens in paprika and tomato pollen. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2000;122(4):246-50



[ 5 ]

Occupational contact urticaria from paprika in a 25-year-old girl working in a biscuit factory for 4 years. She prepared dough sprinkling it with paprika. After 2 years from starting work, she would develop wheals on the hands and forearms, whenever she came into contact with paprika powder. Wheals appeared 1-10 min after contact, were associated with rhinorrhoea and sneezing, and faded away almost 15 mins later by washing the affected areas. Serum specific IgE was raised. (Foti 1997 ref.2576 7)

Reference:
Foti C, Carino M, et al. Occupational contact urticaria from paprika. Contact Dermatitis 1997;37(3):135



[ 6 ]

Occupational asthma in a 27-year-old subject who developed rhinitis and asthma symptoms 1 year after starting to prepare a certain kind of sausage. Skin specific IgE was detected for paprika, coriander, and mace but not to other ingredients of sausage. SPT with other sausage ingredients, mites, pollens, and molds were negative. By ELISA, specific IgE antibodies to paprika, coriander, and mace were demonstrated. Specific bronchial inhalation challenges showed an immediate asthmatic reaction to extracts from paprika, coriander, and mace with a maximum fall in FEV1 of 26%, 40%, and 31%, respectively, with no late asthmatic reactions. (Sastre 1996 ref.1526 4)

Reference:
Sastre J, Olmo M, et al. Occupational asthma due to different spices. Allergy 1996;51(2):117-20



[ 7 ]

The symptoms of occupational pollinosis are described on the basis of case histories, skin tests and serological tests of six commercial gardeners. Exposure to gerberas, freesias, chrysanthemums and to genera of the nightshade family (Solanaceae) such as paprikas, tomatoes, egg plants and potatoes may lead to allergy with raised IgE levels. (Gerth 1989 ref.8704 7)

Reference:
Gerth van Wijk R, Toorenenbergen AW, Dieges PH. Occupational pollinosis in commercial gardeners. [Dutch] Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 1989;133(42):2081-3



[ 8 ]

Toxicoderma caused by sweet red pepper. (Rogov 1985 ref.2642 4)

Reference:
Rogov VD Toxicoderma caused by sweet red pepper [Russian] Vestn Dermatol Venerol 1985;(5):53-4



[ 9 ]

Occupational asthma. An individual, working with spices in the food industry, developed asthma on inhalation of dust from spices. Skin prick test results with curry, coriander, and mace were strongly positive. With RAST, specific IgE antibodies against coriander, curry, mace, ginger, and paprika powder could be demonstrated in serum. RAST inhibition did not demonstrate cross reactivity between coriander and ginger or paprika. The authors conclude that the study demonstrates that the inhalation of dust from spices can result in an IgE-mediated allergy toward these materials. (Van Toorenenbergen 1985 ref.1783 7)

Reference:
van Toorenenbergen AW, Dieges PH. Immunoglobulin E antibodies against coriander and other spices. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1985;76(3):477-81



[ 10 ]

ALLERGY TO BELL PEPPER POLLEN: Two patients developed allergic symptoms to pollen when working in a greenhouse with paprika plants and freesia plants. (Van Toorenenbergen 1984 ref.343 65)

Reference:
van Toorenebergen AW, Dieges, PH. Occupational allergy in horticulture: Demonstration of immediate-type allergic reactivity to freesia and paprika plants. Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol 1984;75:44-47



[ 11 ]

The predatory mite A. cucumeris is a new occupational allergen in horticulture and gardeners, in particular, Bell pepper growers, which can cause an IgE-mediated allergy in exposed employees.

Reference:
Editor Comment Editorial comment, common knowledge, or still to add - -



Background Info:

 

Adverse Reactions:

Background Info:

 

Adverse Reactions:

Background Info:

 

Adverse Reactions:


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