AllAllergy.Net
Advertisement
  Substance Info: (and synonyms)
Spinach

Background Info:

The spinach plant is indigenous to Iran and adjacent Middle Eastern areas. Spinach was subsequently grown in Spain during the 8th century, and the Spaniards are the ones who eventually introduced it to the United States. Spinach is now produced widely throughout the world for it edible leaves. It is the only edible vegetable in the Chenopodiaceae (Spinach) family. Two varieties exist: savoy (wrinkled leaf) and semi-savoy (flat-leafed).

The plants are grown from seed and harvested while young and tender. Varieties differ in leaf shape from smooth and broad to arrow-shaped to savoyed or wrinkled, but all leaves are non-hairy. Their colour tends to be dark green. Since winter-hardy varieties of this annual are available, Spinach can be eaten year-round.

Spinach is not known in the wild. Large quantities are grown commercially for canning and freezing, as well as for fresh consumption. Spinach may be used raw in salads, or cooked (usually by boiling or sautéing) and used as a vegetable or as part of a dish. Many dishes that use Spinach as an integral ingredient are appended with the phrase à la Florentine. The seeds can be eaten raw or cooked, or sprouted and added to salads. Spinach is a rich source of iron as well as of vitamins A and C. But because Spinach contains oxalic acid - which inhibits the body's absorption of calcium and iron - the nutritional value is somewhat diminished. Some modern varieties have been developed that are low in oxalic acid. Spinach contains high levels of histamine; reactions may be indistinguishable from an IgE-mediated reaction.

The plant is carminative and laxative. In experiments it has been shown to have hypoglycaemic properties. It has been used as a herbal remedy for a variety of complaints.

Chlorophyll extracted from the leaves is used as an edible green or yellow dye.

Rich in Vit K. (Karlson 1986 ref.1702 3) High concerntration of oxalic acid, which may interfere with calcium and iron absorption.

Emmental cheese, milk, sesame seeds, and spinach, are calcium-rich foodstuffs.

 

Adverse Reactions:

IMMUNE REACTIONS


[ 1 / 6 ]

Food allergy to spinach in an infant. (Ferrer 2011 ref.26206 7)

Reference:
Ferrer M, Redon B, Bartolome B, Michavila A. Food allergy to spinach in an infant. Allergol Immunopathol (Madr ) 2011 Jan 24;



[ 2 / 6 ]

Immunological contact urticarial and/or protein contact dermatitis. Classically, the protein sources are divided into 4 main groups: group 1: fruits, vegetables, spices, plants, and woods; group 2: animal proteins; group 3: grains and group 4: enzymes. Taking into account the nature of the causal proteins, a wide variety of jobs can be affected. (Amaro 2008 ref.20923 7)

Reference:
Amaro C, Goossens A. Immunological occupational contact urticaria and contact dermatitis from proteins: a review. Contact Dermatitis 2008 Feb;58(2):67-75.



[ 3 / 6 ]

A 31-year-old woman seen for two systemic reactions after spinach intake; the second was anaphylactic shock with respiratory failure. She also had had four episodes of Oral Allergy Syndrome a few minutes after mushroom intake. Skin prick test with commercial spinach was negative. Prick-by-prick tests with raw and boiled spinach, raw beet and chard were positive. Cross-reactivity was demonstrated between spinach and mushroom (Agaricus bisporus). (Herrera 2002 ref.5330 3)

Reference:
Herrera I, Moneo I, Caballero ML, de Paz S, Perez Pimiento A, Rebollo S. Food allergy to spinach and mushroom. Allergy 2002;57(3):261-2



[ 4 / 6 ]

Exercise-induced anaphylaxis associated with food allergy to spinach. This study reports on the possible cross-reactivity between spinach and latex. (Two cases of cross allergy between latex and spinach have been reported previously.) The authors suggest that there may be a common epitope. (Maillard 2000 ref.6006 2)

Reference:
Maillard H, Machet L, Meurisse Y, Garot D, Toledano C, Jan V, Vaillant L. Cross-allergy to latex and spinach. [Letter] Acta Derm Venereol 2000;80(1):51



[ 5 / 6 ]

A 51-year-old woman developed hypersensitivity pneumonitis to spinach powder used as a food dye. (Schreiber 1998 ref.2392 4)

Reference:
Schreiber J, Muller E, et al. Spinach powder-induced exogenous allergic alveolitis. [German] Pneumologie 1998;52(1):61-5



[ 6 / 6 ]

Oral Allergy Syndrome. (Sanchez 1997 ref.2406 2)

Reference:
Sanchez I, Rodriguez F, et al. Oral allergy syndrome induced by spinach. Allergy 1997;52(12):1245-6




Non-Immune reactions


[ 1 ]

Can aggravate kidney and bladder stone formation in susceptible people. Due to the presence of oxalates, people with a tendency to rheumatism, arthritis, gout, kidney stones or hyperacidity should take especial caution if including this plant in their diet, since it can aggravate their condition. (Karkkainen 1997 ref.7450 7)

Reference:
Karkkainen MU, Wiersma JW, Lamberg-Allardt CJ. Postprandial parathyroid hormone response to four calcium-rich foodstuffs. Am J Clin Nutr 1997;65(6):1726-30



[ 2 ]

Anti-hyperglycemic effect (Roman-Ramos 1995 ref.6804 2)

Reference:
Roman-Ramos R, Flores-Saenz JL, Alarcon-Aguilar FJ. Anti-hyperglycemic effect of some edible plants. J Ethnopharmacol 1995;48(1):25-32



[ 3 ]

May produce erythema-multiforme-like eruptions. Phytodermatitis. A total of 15 patients presenting with phytodermatitis was examined. Fresh parts of the plants and standard allergen battery were used for epicutaneous testing. Tests with parts of the plants were carried out in 8 cases and in 5 controls. A total of 38 plants was examined. Positive PT was found for sisal, willow, parsnip, carrot, celery, spinach, green tomato, broomcorn, lemon skin, pyracantha, arborvitae, yucca, ficus, juniper tree, plane tree and greenhouse grass. In cases of positive PT for willow, carrot, celery, green tomato and grass, positive PT for Peru balsam (PB) was also detected, while in positive PT for lemon skin, a positive PT on turpentine was found as well. (Poljacki 1993 ref.1055 3)

Reference:
Poljacki M, Paravina M, Jovanovic M, Subotic M, Duran V. Contact allergic dermatitis caused by plants. [Serbo-Croatian] Med Pregl 1993;46(9-10):371-5



[ 4 ]

Five cases of toxic methemoglobinaemia are reported. Four of them were observed in newborns and the remaining one in a toddler. Acute gastroenteritis, carrot soup and spinach were recognized as etiologic factors. (Arranz 1981 ref.6937 4)

Reference:
Arranz L, Alustiza E, Ruiz Benito C, Angulo P, Perez-Yarza EG. Acquired methemoglobinaemia (author's transl). [Spanish] An Esp Pediatr 1981;15(5):482-7




Occupational reactions


[ 1 ]

Occupational asthma due to allergy to spinach powder in a pasta factory. A 30-year-old man, with no atopy, presented with chronic rhinitis and an asthma which had occurred over the last few months. He had worked for 9 years as a technician in a pasta factory and was exposed to the inhalation of dust and various food proteins. The patient's symptoms were exacerbated when spinach pasta was being prepared. Rhinitis and dyspnea occurred in the work place with delayed symptoms occurring at home later. The pricktest was positive to spinach powder: 6 mm. Spinach-specific IgE was 15.4 kIU/l. Ten minutes after handling the dried spinach powder, there was an early onset of dyspnea. Eight hours later, there was a delayed onset of recurrent dyspnea and another decrease in FEV1 accompanied by fever and arthralgia. (Schuller 2005 ref.11258 5)

Reference:
Reorganization process. Data in process of being reorganized. Editorial staff 2006



[ 2 ]

Food allergy to spinach is extremely rare because of rapid denaturating during digestion of the principal allergens. This study reports on a 30-year-old man, with no atopy, presented with chronic rhinitis and an asthma which had occurred over the last few months. He had worked for 9 years as a technician in a pasta factory and was exposed to the inhalation of dust and various food proteins. The patient's symptoms were exacerbated when spinach pasta was being prepared. Rhinitis and dyspnea occurred in the work place with delayed symptoms occurring at home later. Pricktest (PT) to native foods showed multiple sensitizations to various ingredients of the pasta, like native spinach powder. Spinach-specific IgE was 15.4 kIU/L. Ten minutes after handling the dried spinach powder, there was an early onset of dyspnea. Eight hours later, there was a delayed onset of recurrent dyspnea and another decrease in FEV1 accompanied by fever and arthralgia. (Schuller 2005 ref.11258 8)

Reference:
Schuller A, Morisset M, Maadi F, Kolopp Sarda MN, Fremont S, Parisot L, Kanny G, Moneret-Vautrin DA. Occupational asthma due to allergy to spinach powder in a pasta factory. Allergy 2005;60(3):408-9.



[ 3 ]

A 54-year-old female working as a vegetable farmer presented with painful pruritic skin lesions on both hands (hyperkeratotic fissured eczema). Type I and IV hypersensitivity to spinach, ruccola, and chives, was shown so a protein contact dermatitis was diagnosed. (Roller 2003 ref.9559 3)

Reference:
Roller E, Meller S, Homey B, Ruzicka T, Neumann NJ. Contact dermatitis caused by spinach, hedge mustard and chives. [German] Hautarzt 2003;54(4):374-5




Information supplied from an abridged section of:
Allergy Advisor - Zing Solutions
http://allergyadvisor.com/index.html

© zingsolutions.com 2014

Allergy Advisor  - Food Additive and Preservative Allergy and Intolerance Database


Close