Tomatoes are a vine fruit of the Nightshade family. They were used for food by the Indians of Peru before European arrival. From there the seeds were taken to Europe. Tomato is the most universally accepted vegetable in all cultural groups, and second only to Potato as a vegetable in world food production. A great variety of cultivars exist, from the tiny Cherry Tomato to giant prize varieties the size of Grapefruit; and though the sterotyped colour is red, colors can range from green to purple, and some varieties have stripes. Many wild forms are found, including the closely related species called currant tomato (L. pimpinellifolium).
Wild forms are found, but are not good to eat. Tomatoes are eaten raw or cooked, but the great bulk are processed into juice, canned goods, etc. They can be used as a savoury vegetable, especially in salads, and as a flavouring in soups and other cooked foods. The fruit can also be dried and ground into a powder that can be used as a flavouring and thickening agent in soups, breads, pancakes etc. An edible oil can be obtained from the seed. The fruit is rich in vitamins A and C, calcium and potassium.
The skin of Tomato fruits is a good source of lycopine, a substance that has been shown to protect people from heart attacks and to have a very beneficial effect on the prostate. Other remedies incorporating Tomato are for rheumatism, severe headaches, burns, scalds, sunburn, and toothache.
The pulped fruit is a skin-wash for oily skin. The oil can be used in making soap.
All green parts of the plant are poisonous. A spray made from Tomato leaves is an effective but very poisonous insecticide.
Allergenicity dependant on the ripeness of tomato.
LAT52, a Ole e 1 homolog
Lyc e 1, a profilin. (Petersen 1996 ref.829 12) (Willerroider 2003 ref.8303 1)
Allergenicity dependant on the ripeness of tomato.
Tomato contains a Lipid Transfer Protein. (Asero 2000 ref.3711 3)
Tomato appears to contain a chitinase panallergen. (Diaz-Perales 1999 ref.3692 1)
A 2S storage albumin from the seed of tomato was isolated. (Oguri 2003 ref.7796 5) Its allergenicity was not examined.
Similar protein have been detected in skin and seed extracts with protein bands discernible at molecular weights of 21, 33, and 43 kDa, one of which appears to be a heat-stable allergen as both patients in this study developed severe allergic reactions to cooked and fresh tomato. One patient reacted specifically to a 43-kDa protein band on IgE immunoblot. (Zacharisen 2002 ref.5806 8)
Four proteins binding with IgE from more than half of the OAS patients' sera were determined to be polygalacturonase 2A (PG2A), [beta]-fructofuranosidase, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and pectinesterase (PE). The concentrations of PG2A, [beta]-fructofuranosidase and PE were highest in the red ripening stage with both SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting. (Kondo 2001 ref.4917 9)
Prick by prick tests were carried out with different tomato samples (fruits grown under biological conditions without addition of chemical products, and treated with ethylene and salicylic acid) in eight patients with ages between 12 and 27 years who suffered from anaphylaxis episodes after eating raw tomatoes. The wheals obtained in prick tests were significantly higher with the extracts of tomato treated with ethylene and SAA (chi(2) = 31.3, p < 0.0001) and the patients who presented higher wheal diameters in skin tests were those who had more severe episodes of anaphylaxis. Neither the protein stain nor the IgE immunodetection patterns clearly varied between the untreated and the hormone-treated samples. (Armentia 2003 ref.7753 3)
IGE AND IMMUNE:
Probably the vegetable which most often gives hypersensitivity reactions, shown to be due to a glycoprotein; but polydispersed throughout a number of fractions.
Although tomatoes are a commonly consumed food, severe allergic reactions to tomatoes are unusual or rarely reported. Previously reported allergic manifestations to tomato include urticaria/angioedema, dermatitis, perioral dermatitis, Oral Allergy Syndrome, rhinitis, and abdominal pain. Tomato pollen may trigger rhinitis and/or conjunctivitis. This study reports on two patients with significant immediate hypersensitivity reactions to tomato. Both adults experienced laryngeal edema and one had anaphylaxis. (Zacharisen 2002 ref.5806 3)
Phytodermatitis to green tomato. (Poljacki 1993 ref.1055 4) Atopic dermatitis. (Ottolenghi 1995 ref.1289 3) (Sloper 1991 ref.1698 3) (Veien 1987 ref.1775 2) One of the commonest causes of contact dermatitis of the hands. (Sinha 1997 ref.340 23)
Pruritis (Itching) (lips, throat). Oral pruritis and Oral allergy syndrome. (Kondo 2001 ref.4917 9) (Ortolani 1989 ref.39 152) (Ortolani 1988 ref.6933 3) Uncooked tomatoes, but not cooked, resulted in oral tingling and facial erythema in a 39-year-old woman. (Tavidia 2002 ref.7253 4)
Urticaria and Angioedema. (Bleumink 1966 ref.431 81)
High frequency (50%) of food hypersensitivity in patients with allergic rhinoconjunctivitis. Food allergens seen more frequently were shellfish, tomato, rice, and peanut. (Ortega 1997 ref.1615 4)
Food-dependant exercise-induced anaphylaxis. (Caffarelli 1996 ref.6604 3) (Shadick 1999 ref.6602 5) (Guinnepain 1996 ref.823 34) (Caffarelli 1994 ref.6609 8) (Romano 1995 ref.1292 8) (Kidd 1983 ref.332 31) (Caffarelli 1997 ref.617 23) This study reports that tomatoes, cereals and peanuts were the most common foods in food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis. (Romano 2001 ref.4305 7)
Hypotension. Rhinitis. (Kivity 1994 ref.463 33) Vomiting, diarrhoea, nausea and abdominal pain.
In 25 patients with recurrent otitis media with effusion and food allergy demonstrated by positive skin testing, the most common food found to be associated was milk, egg, beans, citrus, and tomato. The elimination of the food diet led to a significant amelioration of the otitis in 22 patients. A subsequent challenge with the suspected offending food provoked a recurrence of the otitis problem. (Arroyave 2001 ref.7020 3)
Eosinophilic cystitis induced by the ingestion of specific foodstuffs (tomatoes, coffee, carrots). (Sanchez 1984 ref.1031 1)
Common cause of allergy, especially in children. (Kajosaari 1982 ref.1022 2)
A significant association exists between recurrent serous otitis media and food allergy was demonstrated in 81 of 104 patients. An elimination diet resulted in a significant amelioration of the disease in 86% of the patients and a challenge diet provoked recurrence of symptoms in 94%. The highest frequency was seen with milk, wheat, egg, peanut, soy and corn, and <10% were seen with orange, tomato, chicken and apple. (Nsouli 1994 ref.7725 6)
Gardening - unexpected exposure
Occupational asthma in greenhouse tomato growers due to Red Spider Mites. (Erlam 1996 ref.1071 1)
Occupational asthma in tomato growers following an outbreak of the fungus Verticillium albo-atrum in the crop. (Davies 1988 ref.2568 4)
IgE against paprika pollen, but not against tomato pollen, was found in serum from 2 greenhouse workers who worked with paprika plants. A greenhouse worker, who cultivated tomato plants, had IgE against both tomato and paprika pollen. The authors conclude that the presence of IgE against paprika or tomato pollen is not restricted to workers in horticulture; IgE against these pollen can also be present in food-allergic patients who have serum IgE against paprika and/or tomato fruit. (Van Toorenenbergen 2000 ref.7021 4)
Occupational allergy to the plant pollen. (Gerth van Wijk 1989 ref.8704 3)
Other substances present, e.g., histamine, tyramine, may mimic certain reactions (see each substance).
Gustatory sweating. (Freeman 1998 ref.966 10)
Auriculotemporal syndrome (or gustatory flushing syndrome), a masquerader for food allergy (erythema alone), following spicy food such as tomato sauce. (Sicherer 1996 ref.984 01)
Tomato juice can cause reflux esophagitis (heartburn). (Price 1978 ref.1023 3)
Hypercarotenaemia in a tomato soup faddist. (Ghandi 1988 ref.1027 3)
Contact dermatitis on a farm may be due to the pesticide Dyrene and not tomato. (Schuman 1985 ref.1030 9)
Recurrent aphthous stomatitis. (Eversole 1982 ref.2755 0)
In 33 patients with chronic urticaria and pseudoallergic reactions to food (proved by means of elimination diet and subsequent re-exposure with provocation meals), oral provocation tests were performed with field-grown tomatoes. 76% of the group reacted to tomato. The authors tested for salicylates, histamine, and other components, and attribute the reactions to aromatic volatile ingredients in food, which are novel agents that elicit pseudoallergic reactions in chronic urticaria. Histamine, salicylate, and a direct mast-cell histamine release were not involved in this reactivity to naturally occurring pseudoallergens. (Zyberbier 2002 ref. 5090 4)
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Allergy Advisor - Zing Solutions
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