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  Substance Info: (and synonyms)
Almond

Background Info:

See also: Bitter Almond

The fruit and seeds of several other plants are known as Almonds. The seeds of the African shrub Brabeium stellatifolium are known as, African Almonds. Country Almonds is a name given to the fruit of the East Indian tree Terminalia Catappa. The fruit of Canarium commune is known as Java Almonds. Bitter Almond is a variety of Prunus amygdalus (var. amara).

Food
A food, which may result in allergy symptoms in sensitised individuals.

Allergen Exposure
a. Geographical distribution
The Almond is the fruit of a vigorous, deep-rooted deciduous small tree belonging to the Rose family, which grows best in areas with dry, warm summers. The plant is believed to be a native of northern Africa and the Middle East. It occurs wild in Sicily and Greece and is extensively cultivated in northern Africa, southern Europe, Australia and the warmer parts of the United States, particularly California.

The fruit is a drupe or the kernel stone fruit, resembling the Peach in its general structural characters. It is, however, much smaller, measuring about 4cm in length. As in the Peach, the outer portion of the fruit coat (sarcocarp) is fleshy, while the inner portion (endocarp or putamen) is hard and encloses the kernel or seed, to which the term Almond is commonly applied.

Almonds come in many varieties, but the 2 major, universally recognised ones are the Sweet (Prunus amygdalus var. dulcis) and the Bitter (Prunus amygdalus var. amara). They appear very similar but are different in chemistry. In the Bitter variety, substantial amounts of amygdalin (or “laetrile”), containing hydrocyanic (or “prussic”) acid, are found. The bitter Almond is banned from retail sale in the US because of the toxicity of unprocessed amygdalin. Only sweet Almonds are edible.

b. Environment
Almonds have always been an important ingredient in Arabic dishes and Indian curries. Sweet Almonds are readily available in markets (fresh, blanched, roasted candied, or smoked; whole, sliced, chopped, or in paste form) and are used in a variety of recipes, especially for sweets and confectionery. Heat-processed bitter Almonds are used to flavour extracts, flavouring, liqueurs and syrups. The purified fixed oil from both varieties of Almonds has food uses, particularly as a condiment. Almond oil is used in cosmetics. Almonds are a nutritional powerhouse, packed with calcium, fiber, folic acid, magnesium, potassium, riboflavin and vitamin E.

Medicinally, externally applied Almond oil is an emollient; internally applied, a laxative, nutritional substitute and supplement (particularly in cases of diabetes), and a remedy for nervous system disorders such as whooping cough and spasmodic troubles.

Almond oil and paste often feature in cosmetics and toiletries.

The relationship between the levels of cyanogenic compounds (amygdalin and prunasin) in kernels, leaves, and roots of 5 sweet-, 5 slightly bitter-, and 5 bitter-kernelled almond trees was determined. Prunasin was found only in the vegetative part (roots and leaves) for all genotypes tested. Amygdalin was detected only in the kernels, mainly in bitter genotypes. In general, bitter-kernelled genotypes had higher levels of prunasin in their roots than nonbitter ones, but the correlation between cyanogenic compounds in the different parts of plants was not high. While prunasin seems to be present in most almond roots (with a variable concentration) only bitter-kernelled genotypes are able to transform it into amygdalin in the kernel. (Dicenta 2002 ref.7819 4)

 

Adverse Reactions:

IMMUNE REACTIONS


[ 1 / 24 ]

This study was performed to delineate the prevalence of, and evaluate possible risk factors for, adverse reactions to SPT in a prospective study of 5,908 patients aged Generalized allergic reactions
1. Boy, 5 m, eczema. Tested with 4 allergens, positive for cow’s milk and egg. After 10 min developed generalized urticaria, severe pruritus, swelling of the arm where the tests were performed, and excessive crying.
2. Boy, 6 m, eczema. Test with cow’s milk. After 10 min, generalized erythema, severe pruritus, itchy, red conjunctivae, vomiting.
3. Girl, 6 m, eczema. SPT with 5 allergens. Positive to egg, milk, wheat, rye, dog. Generalized urticaria, severe pruritus and reddening of eczema over the whole body.
4. Girl, 8 m, occasional urticaria when exposed to a casein hydrolysate formula on the skin, drop test negative. SPT with two allergens, both positive (Nutramigen and Profylac). After 10-15 min urticaria and pruritus.
5. Boy, 5.5 y, eczema, allergy to cow’s milk and egg. SPT to four allergens, positive to egg white and dog. After 10 min, sore throat, hoarseness, becomes pale, starts to cough and goes into cold sweat.
6. Boy, 10.5 y, with asthma and urticaria occasionally. SPT with 4 allergens, positive to almond and peanut. Complains of nasal congestion after 10 min.
7. Boy, 11 y, eczema, rhinitis, asthma. SPT with 9 allergens, positive tests to 7 (dog, cat, horse, birch, timothy, Cladosporium and Aspergillus). Nasal congestion and red, itchy and watery eyes.
(Norrman 2009 ref.23010 7)

Reference:
Norrman G, Falth-Magnusson K. Adverse reactions to skin prick testing in children - Prevalence and possible risk factors. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2009 Feb 4;



[ 2 / 24 ]

A 17-year-old atopic patient with eyelid angioedema and rash in exposed areas related to exposure to or contact with almond tree leaves and almond fruit epicarp/mesocarp on the family farm. Symptoms appeared when he touched or was near almond tree leaves and/or epicarp/mesocarp. He reported good tolerance to contact with and ingestion of both peeled and unpeeled almonds. He also had a history of oral pruritus following the ingestion of unpeeled peach and rhinoconjunctivitis due to house dust mite and cat dander.

Skin prick tests were negative for the 3 types of almond seeds used and for the almond seed, skin, and endocarp extracts. Serum specific IgE was negative for almond fruit and positive for peach (4.63 kU/L). In vitro stimulation was positive for epicarp/mesocarp in BAT and for epicarp/mesocarp, peach skin, and peach pulp in CAST. BAT was negative for almond leaf, peach skin, and peach pulp and CAST for almond leaf. Proteins from epicarp/mesocarp and almond tree leaf were separated by electrophoresis, which revealed a protein band pattern with molecular weights of between 9 kDa and 63 kDa. This study found that both almond tree leaves and almond fruit epicarp/mesocarp were allergenic sources, indicating the existence of lipid transfer proteins (LTPs) with allergenic potential. These findings constitute the first explicit report of the presence of LTPs (Pru du LTP) in almond fruit and almond tree leaves, and that LTPs present in nonpollinic structures such as almond fruit epicarp/mesocarp and almond tree leaves may behave as contact or airborne allergens and that these panallergens are present and relevant in the almond tree and almond fruit.

Reference:
Garrido-Fernandez S, Garcia BE, Sanz ML, Ariz S, Tabar AI. The role of lipid transfer proteins in the almond tree and almond fruit as contact and airborne allergens. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol 2009;19(1):61-63



[ 3 / 24 ]

Anaphylaxis caused by tangerine seeds but not tangerine fruit. A 4 1/2-year-old boy was evaluated for anaphylaxis. One year earlier, he had an anaphylactic reaction after ingesting pistachio nuts associated with lethargy, generalized urticaria, and facial swelling. Almonds induced a similar anaphylactic reaction previously. Treatment reversed both episodes. Skin prick test (SPT) results were positive to cashew (4 X 5-mm wheal), which is in the same family as pistachio and almonds (5 X 5-mm wheal), but negative to peanut. One month later, the patient developed anaphylaxis with generalized urticaria and wheezing 2 hours after ingesting a tangerine with seeds. Specifically, he chewed and then swallowed 1 tangerine seed. The reaction required treatment. The patient had previously tolerated ingestion of seedless tangerines. A positive SPT response to extract of tangerine seed (20 X 10-mm wheal was recorded and a negative result to the tangerine fruit. Oral challenge to tangerine seed was not performed. He was likely responding to cross-reacting antigens in tangerine seeds and tree nuts. Cross-reactivity between seeds and tree nuts has been attributed to common allergenic structures in hazelnut, sesame seeds, and poppy seeds. (Wang 2008 ref.22731 0)

Reference:
Wang ET. Anaphylaxis caused by tangerine seeds but not tangerine fruit. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2008 Nov;101(5):553-554



[ 4 / 24 ]

Immunological contact urticarial and/or protein contact dermatitis. Classically, the protein sources are divided into 4 main groups: group 1: fruits, vegetables, spices, plants, and woods; group 2: animal proteins; group 3: grains and group 4: enzymes. Taking into account the nature of the causal proteins, a wide variety of jobs can be affected. (Amaro 2008 ref.20923 7)

Reference:
Amaro C, Goossens A. Immunological occupational contact urticaria and contact dermatitis from proteins: a review. Contact Dermatitis 2008 Feb;58(2):67-75.



[ 5 / 24 ]

A 65-year-old female (patient 1) and a 25-year-old male (patient 2) reported anaphylactic episodes, in the first 30’ after ingestion of pesto genovese sauce (containing raw basil, pine nuts, garlic, olive oil, with/without parmesan cheese). Patient 1 experienced generalized urticaria, angioedema and dyspnoea that resolved rapidly after treatment. Patient 2, experienced itchy mouth, rhinitis (rhinorrea and congestion), conjunctivitis and emesis, that remitted 60 min after the administration of antihistamine. Both patients complained of OAS (itching and burning mouth sensation) every time they used to eat oregano-seasoned Greek salad. Patient 2 also reported allergy to tree nuts (OAS to walnut and almond and alaphylaxis to pistachio and cashew nut) and seasonal rhinitis. SPT to all Labiatae tested (basil, oregano, marjoram, sage, mint, thyme, lavender) were positive in Patient 1, while in Patient 2 only basil, oregano and lavender resulted positive. Patient 1 was also found positive to Mugwort. Patient 2 had positive SPT to Grasses, hazelnut, almond, walnut, pistachio, cashew nut and celery. sIgE resulted negative to basil, marjoram and thyme in both patients. The study concludes that allergy to Labiatae is observed in pollen-allergic patients. Allergy to a member of this plant family is not always followed by allergy to the other members, although basil allergy seems to be connected to oregano OAS. (Vartholomaios 2006 ref.22976 5)

Reference:
Vartholomaios S, Pitsios C, Lefousis C, Mikos N, Kompoti E, Kouridakis S. Coexisting allergy to basil and oregano presentation of two case reports. EAACI Congress, Vienna-Austria. 2006 Jun; Oral Abstract 529.



[ 6 / 24 ]

A "nut box" was constructed containing samples of common nuts and pine nuts. Nut-allergic and nonallergic children were asked to identify the nuts, and their responses were compared and correlated by age. Nut-allergic children were asked to identify the nut(s) that they should not eat. In general, children, including those who are allergic to nuts, can identify few nuts. This lack of recognition could put them at increased risk for unintentional ingestion. As part of an overall educational plan, nut-allergic children should be taught not only to avoid but also to identify the nut to which they are allergic. (Ferdman 2006 ref.15441 7)

Reference:
Ferdman RM, Church JA. Mixed-up nuts: identification of peanuts and tree nuts by children. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2006 Jul;97(1):73-77



[ 7 / 24 ]

The syndrome of kiss-induced allergy (KIA) is an original form of allergy by proxy. Its true prevalence, probably underestimated, is not known but is reported to be between 1 and 10% in individuals suspected of being or actually allergic to food. The symptoms of KIA, local or regional, mild or moderate in 70% of the cases, can also turn out to be severe, with angioedema, bronchospasm, acute respiratory distress or anaphylaxis. FIA should be considered systematically in the following circumstances: 1) In pollen allergic patients who have an oral allergy reaction to fruits and vegetables; 2) patients who have severe food allergy and react to very small amounts of the responsible allergen; and 3) those who are having an “idiopathic” anaphylactic reaction. The diagnosis, above all clinical, requires a very careful history, noting that the symptoms appeared within minutes after a kiss. The time between eating the allergen and the kiss can be quite variable, from a few minutes up to two hours. Any food can be responsible, for example, common fruit (apple and kiwi), dried nuts (peanuts, almonds, hazel nuts, exotic nuts), fish, seafood, eggs, cow milk, etc. (Dutau 2006 ref.13850 9)

Reference:
Dutau G, Rancé F. Le syndrome des allergies induites par le baiser / Kiss-induced allergy Revue francaise d allergologie 2006;46(2):80-84



[ 8 / 24 ]

A retrospective review of 213 Australian children with peanut or tree nut allergy was undertaken over a 42 month period. Anaphylaxis to cashew nut was more common than to peanut (74.1% v 30.5%). Of 213 patients seen with peanut and/or tree nut allergy, 177 patients (83.1%) had peanut allergy, 27 (12.6%) had cashew allergy, and 9 (4.2%; 2 each to almond and pecan, 1 each to hazelnut and walnut, and 3 were a mixture of nuts) had allergy to other tree nuts. A number of patients had anaphylaxis without cutaneous involvement. (Davoren 2005 ref.15757 0)

Reference:
Davoren M, Peake J. Cashew nut allergy is associated with a high risk of anaphylaxis. Arch Dis Child 2005 Oct;90(10):1084-5.



[ 9 / 24 ]

A 42-year-old man developed generalised pruritus, itching of the throat, rhinitis, dyspnoea and dizziness 5 min after eating a few roasted Macadamia nuts. Skin prick tests were positive to Hazelnut and roasted Macadamia nut but negative for Peanut, Almond, Brazil nut and Walnut. A 34-year-old man repeatedly developed severe oral burning, itching and swelling after eating Hazelnut, Walnut, Brazil nut, Almond and Macadamia nut, but tolerating Peanut and Cashew nut. Skin prick test was positive to peanut, almond, hazelnut, Brazil nut and walnut but negative to cashew nut. A prick-to-prick was positive for Macadamia nut. Specific IgE to latex were 1.7 kU/l and negative to peanut, almond, hazelnut, Brazil nut, walnut, cashew nut and macadamia nut. (Lerch 2005 ref.10184 2)

Reference:
Lerch M, Egger C, Bircher AJ. Allergic reactions to macadamia nut. Allergy 2005;60(1):130-1.



[ 10 / 24 ]

A report on the sudden and unexpected death of an individual following the ingestion of hazelnuts and almonds, to which the individual was not previously known to be allergic. After eating a dessert, he experienced throat closing and swelling of his lips. He had previously experienced similar symptoms after ingesting peanuts, and after confirming that none were present in the food, he relaxed. He then collapsed during vigorous dancing. The death was not associated with cutaneous or laryngeal manifestations of anaphylaxis. (Flannagan 2004 ref.20217 7)

Reference:
Flannagan LM, Wolf BC. Sudden death associated with food and exercise. J Forensic Sci 2004 May;49(3):543-5.



[ 11 / 24 ]

A case of cashew nut allergy followed by almond allergy. (Kakemizu 2003 ref.8821 8)

Reference:
Kakemizu N, Yamakawa Y, Aihara M, Ikezawa Z. A case of cashew nut allergy followed by almond allergy. [Japanese] Arerugi 2003;52(10):1022-6



[ 12 / 24 ]

Anaphylaxis. In a study to characterise almond allergens, sera from individuals allergic to almond or other nuts were obtained from two different Immunology and Allergy Centres in Italy. Sera were selected by means of positive skin prick tests and the appearance of oral allergy symptoms stage 4 (anaphylactic reaction in patients 1–4) or oral allergy syndrome stage 2 (itching of oral cavity and rhino-conjunctivitis in patient 5). Skin prick tests with a commercially available almond extract were positive for the selected sera. DBPCFC tests or open food challenges were performed. Five of the tested sera were positive to food challenges and negative to placebo (patients 1–4 had an anaphylactic reaction and patient 5 had oral cavity itching). (Poltronieri 2002 ref.5993 8)

Reference:
Poltronieri P, Cappello MS, Dohmae N, Conti A, Fortunato D, Pastorello EA, et al. Identification and characterisation of the IgE-binding proteins 2S albumin and conglutin gamma in almond (Prunus dulcis) seeds. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2002;128(2):97-104



[ 13 / 24 ]

A single case report of allergy to almond. One major IgE-binding almond protein was characterised as an allergen, namely almond major protein or amandin, a 37 kDa protein. (Pasini 2000 ref.7823 2)

Reference:
Pasini G, Simonato B, Giannattasio M, Gemignani C, Curioni A. IgE binding to almond proteins in two CAP-FEIA-negative patients with allergic symptoms to almond as compared to three CAP-FEIA-false-positive subjects. Allergy 2000;55(10):955-8



[ 14 / 24 ]

This study investigated the cross-reactivity to non-Rosaceae LTPs. IgE antibodies to Rosaceae LTPs reacted to a broad range of vegetable foods were evaluated in 498 subjects (age > 12 years) with Rosaccae allergy as judged by skin prick test with fresh fruits and (in most cases) clinical history. The majority had OAS (>97%), and only a minority (approximately 10%) showed urticaria/angioedema, gastrointestinal symptoms, food-induced rhinitis, asthma, or anaphylaxis. Sera from 37 patients were available for follow-up studies. Peach was identified most frequently as an offending Rosaceae food (in 30/37 patients), followed by apple (16/37), apricot (11/37), cherry (9/37), plum (8/37), almond (7/37) and pear (6/37). Four patients did not have any clinical symptoms related to Rosaccae fruits, despite a positive SPT with commercial plum extract and peach peel extract. All 37 patients were interviewed for allergies to other foods. Walnut and hazelnut were most frequently reported as offending foods (19/37 and 15/37, respectively), closely followed by peanut (9/37). For the other 33 different foods, the number of patients reporting symptoms ranged from 1 to 5. These foods were found among all major groups of vegetable foods, including cereals (corn, wheat), legumes (soybean, string bean, white bean, chick pea, lentils, lupine), Solanaceae (potato, tomato, eggplant) Brassicaceae (cabbage, mustard), Umbelliferae (celery, fennel), Rutaceae (lemon, orange), and several other plant families. This article contains a table of the 37 patients and the effecting foods and symptoms of each patient.
(Asero 2000 ref.3711 7)

Reference:
Asero R, Mistrello G, Roncarolo D, de Vries SC, Gautier MF, Ciurana CL, Verbeek E, Mohammadi T, Knul-Brettlova V, Akkerdaas JH, Bulder I, Aalberse RC, van Ree R. Lipid transfer protein: a pan-allergen in plant-derived foods that is highly resistant to pepsin digestion. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2000;122(1):20-32



[ 15 / 24 ]

A five month old child with atopic dermatitis developed contact dermatitis to almond with positive patch test, positive prick test, and class 4 anti-almond IgE. Persistent eczema were correlated with application of almond oil on cheeks and buttocks. The child had not ingested almond and her mother did not report almond intake during her breast-feeding. This observation points to the problems of possible percutaneous sensitisation to food proteins. (Guillet 2000 ref.7822 1)

Reference:
Guillet G, Guillet MH. Percutaneous sensitization to almond oil in infancy and study of ointments in 27 children with food allergy. [French] Allerg Immunol (Paris) 2000;32(8):309-11



[ 16 / 24 ]

A patient previously sensitized to almond who presented systemic reactions after ingestion of pine nuts. A 28-year-old man presented several episodes of generalized pruritus with involvement of the palms and soles; angioedema localized in the face, genitals, and oropharynx; dysphagia and difficult breathing; erythematous maculopapular rash in the trunk and extremities; and dizziness. Each time, he needed treatment with parenteral anti-histaminics and steroids. Episodes took place on three occasions after ingestion of nuts (almonds among them), meatballs, and meat pie. The meatballs and meat pie contained pine nuts that the patient did not notice. He also reported having, since infancy, itchy; papular, and erythematous skin lesions on both forearms immediately after handling almonds. He tolerated other nuts. Skin prick test was positive for peanut, hazelnut, walnut, almond and pine nut. A positive intradermal test reaction to pine nut occurred. Serum specific IgE against was almond (9.79 kU/1), peanut (51.6 kU/1), hazelnut (35.5 kU/1), and pine nut (5.27 kU/1). Oral provocation with pine nut and almond was not performed. Cross-reactivity between pine nut and almond found in this study. (de las Marinas 1998 ref.2437 7)

Reference:
de las Marinas D, Vila L, Sanz ML. Allergy to pine nuts. Allergy 1998;53(2):220-2



[ 17 / 24 ]

Allergy to almonds has been frequently reported. In particular, tree nut allergies are potentially life-threatening, rarely outgrown, and appear to be increasing in prevalence. Peanut and tree-nut allergic reactions coexist in one third of peanut-allergic patients, frequently occur on first known exposure, and may be life-threatening, requiring emergency treatment. Accidental ingestions are common, occur frequently outside of the home, and often require emergency treatment. (Sicherer 1998 ref.2362 1)

Reference:
Sicherer SH, Burks AW, Sampson HA. Clinical features of acute allergic reactions to peanut and tree nuts in children. Pediatrics 1998;102(1):e6



[ 18 / 24 ]

Nut oils may pose a threat to patients with allergy, depending on the method of manufacture and processing. (Teuber 1997 ref.1631 8) Hazelnut or other nut oils may be used in chocolate manufacturing. If not completely cleared of hazelnut allergens, may cause an allergy reaction.

Reference:
Teuber SS, Brown RL, Haapanen LA. Allergenicity of gourmet nut oils processed by different methods. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1997;99(4):502-7



[ 19 / 24 ]

In a study of 62 patients with nut allergy (adults and children), peanuts were the commonest cause of allergy (47) followed by Brazil nut (18), almond (14), and hazelnut (13). The commonest symptom was facial angioedema, and the major life threatening reaction was laryngeal oedema. Hypotension was uncommon. (Ewan 1996 ref.1625 8)

Reference:
Ewan PW. Clinical study of peanut and nut allergy in 62 consecutive patients: new features and associations. BMJ 1996;312(7038):1074-8



[ 20 / 24 ]

IgE-mediated allergy to almonds was found in 22% of symptomatic patients by means of positive skin prick tests and ImmunoCAP with IgE antibodies specific to almond. (Sporik 1996 ref.7451 7)

Reference:
Sporik R, Hill D. Allergy to peanut, nuts, and sesame seed in Australian children. [Letter] BMJ 1996;313(7070):1477-8



[ 21 / 24 ]

In 102 patients (children and adults) with hypersensitivity to dried fruits, of the dried fruits the almond was the most sensitizing (89%, 87% and 68% of correlation between the clinical history, skin tests and in vitro tests (histamine release test and RAST), respectively). Hypersensitivity to peach was detected in 47% of the cases. As for the association between food allergy and pollen hypersensitivity, the highest percentages were for tree pollen (51%) followed by weeds (27%) and grasses (25%). (Amat 1990 ref.1401 8)

Reference:
Amat Par P, Sanosa Valls J, et al. Dried fruit hypersensitivity and its correlation with pollen allergy. Allergol Immunopathol (Madr) 1990;18(1):27-34



[ 22 / 24 ]

In a report on pine nut allergy, a 17-year-old male student had a history of multiple food sensitivities, including dermal, respiratory and gastrointestinal reactions to diverse "nuts." Almonds (possibly cross-reacting with cherries, peaches, etc) had caused "stomach upsets"; peanuts (and other legumes) were blamed for asthma-like symptoms and pistachios had reportedly caused stomatitis and epigastric pain. Skin prick test was positive for pine nut but an oral challenge test did not appear then - or subsequently - to be of any practical benefit to this multiply atopic individual. He was nevertheless advised to avoid pine nuts as he had avoided a number of other food items consistently in the past. (Falliers 1989 ref.295 58)

Reference:
Falliers C. Pine nut allergy in perspective. Ann Allergy 1989;62:186-189



[ 23 / 24 ]

In this study, 102 patients with the initial diagnosis of idiopathic anaphylaxis were evaluated with a battery of 79 food-antigen skin prick tests selected to include foods reported or suspected of provoking anaphylaxis. Thirty-two patients (31%) had positive tests to one or more food antigens. In five of these patients, subsequently eating a food that elicited a positive test provoked an anaphylactic reaction. Two patients eliminated the foods completely, stopped having reactions, and refused challenge. In these seven patients, 10 different antigens provoked anaphylaxis: aniseed, cashew nut, celery, flaxseed, hops, mustard, mushroom, shrimp, sunflower, and walnut. We conclude that a battery of selected food-antigen skin prick tests provided a useful method for identifying an offending antigen in these patients and that some (7% in our series) cases of "idiopathic" anaphylaxis by history are not truly idiopathic.
The 10 antigens with positive clinical correlation
Antigens A B C
Aniseed 1 5 20
Cashew nut 1 2 50
Celery 2 4 50
Flaxseed 1 1 100
Hops 1 2 50
Mushroom 1 3 33
Mustard 2 3 66
Shrimp 1 3 33
Sunflower seed 1 3 33
Walnut 1 1 100
A = Total No. of positive skin tests with positive correlation
B = Total No. of positive skin tests
C = Percent of positive skin tests with positive correlation

Total number of positive skin prick tests.
2 - Almond
5 - Aniseed
1 - Artichoke
1 - Baker's yeast
1 - Beet
1 - Brazil nut
2 - Brewer's yeast
1 - Caraway seed
2 - Cashew nut
5 - Castor bean
4 - Celery
8 - Chamomile
2 - Chestnut
1 - Chicory
1 - Clam
2 - Coconut
1 - Cottonseed
2 - Crab
1 - Fennel
4 - Filbert (hazelnut)
I - Flaxseed
1 - Garbanzo bean
2 - Ginger
1 - Halibut
1 - Honey
2 - Hops
3 - Horseradish
1 - Lentil
1 - Lima beans
2 - Lobster
2 - Mango
1 - Milk
5 - Millet
3 - Mushroom
3 - Mustard
1 - Nutmeg
2 - Pea
1 - Pistachio
3 - Poppy seed
2 - Sesame seed
3 - Shrimp
3 - Sunflower
1 - Thyme
1 - Tumeric
1 - Walnut
None for Allspice, Apple, Banana, Bay leaf, Black pepper, Buckwheat, Cantaloupe, Chicken, Chili pepper, Chocolate, Cinnamon, Clove, Cod, Corn, Cumin seed, Dill seed, Egg, Garlic, Juniper berry, Orange, Oyster, Peach, Peanut, Potato, Psyllium seed, Raspberry, Sage, Salmon, Soybean, Strawberry, Sweet potato, Tangerine, Tapioca, Vanilla.
7 patients with positive clinical correlation to a SPT
1 : Aniseed
2 : Shrimp
3 : Mustard, flaxseed
4 : Celery, hops
5 : Celery, mustard, sunflower
6 : Walnut, cashew nut
7 : Mushroom
(Stricker 1986 ref.9 3606)

Reference:
Stricker WE, Anorve Lopez E, Reed CE. Food skin testing in patients with "idiopathic anaphylaxis". J Allergy Clin Immunol 1986;77:516-519



[ 24 / 24 ]

Allergic reactions. Asthma. Dermatitis. Anaphylaxis.

Many patients with immediate type allergy to tree pollen also suffer from intolerance to hazelnuts and almonds. Since rather low levels of hazelnut and almond proteins can provoke an allergic reaction in sensitized individuals.

Reference:
Editor Comment Editorial comment, common knowledge, or still to add - -




Non-Immune reactions


[ 1 ]

The effects on iron absorption of nuts were measured in 137 Indian women. When the absorption from bread and nut meals (walnuts, almonds, peanuts, and hazelnuts) was compared with that from bread meals, the overall geometric mean absorption from the nut meals (1.8%) was significantly less than from the bread meals alone (6.6%). In contrast, coconut did not reduce absorption significantly. All the nuts tested contained significant amounts of two known inhibitors of iron absorption (phytates and polyphenols) but the amounts in coconut were significantly less than in the other nuts. Fifty milligrams ascorbic acid overcame the inhibitory effects of two nuts that were tested (Brazil nuts and peanuts). This is different from that found previously for soy protein, another potent inhibitor of iron absorption. (Macfarlane 1988 ref.7810 1)

Reference:
Macfarlane BJ, Bezwoda WR, Bothwell TH, Baynes RD, Bothwell JE, MacPhail AP, Lamparelli RD, Mayet F. Inhibitory effect of nuts on iron absorption. Am J Clin Nutr 1988;47(2):270-4



[ 2 ]

Eriksson found a correlation between acetylsalicylic acid intolerance and food sensitivity with some foods, e.g., nuts, strawberry, almond, green pepper, hip, chocolate, egg, cabbage, milk and wine. (Eriksson 1984 ref.327 12)

Reference:
Eriksson NE. Clustering of foodstuffs in food hypersensitivity. An inquiry study in pollen allergic patients. Allergol et immunopathol 1984;12(1):28-32.



[ 3 ]

Eriksson found a correlation between acetylsalicylic acid intolerance and sensitivity to some foods, e.g., nuts, strawberry, almond, green pepper, chocolate, egg, cabbage, milk and wine. (Eriksson 1978 ref.1247 7)

Reference:
Eriksson NE. Food sensitivity reported by patients with asthma and hay fever. Allergy 1978;33:189-196



[ 4 ]

Acne vulgaris. (Wuthrich 1978 ref.231 89)

Reference:
Wüthrich B, Much Th. Nahrungsmittel Allergen-Testung bei Acne vulgaris? Dermatologica 1978;157:294-295.



[ 5 ]

See also: Bitter almond

Reference:
Editor Comment Editorial comment, common knowledge, or still to add - -



[ 6 ]

See also: Bitter almond

Reference:
Editor Comment Editorial comment, common knowledge, or still to add - -




Occupational reactions


[ 1 ]

Occupational asthma developed in a 37-year-old man chronically exposed to almond shell dust. In the last 3 years, he worked as a sheller of hulled almonds. He noticed sneezing and nasal discharge a few hours after beginning his working activity. During the last year, he started to have dyspnea, dry cough, and wheezing which were more intense at the end of the work shift and at night. He was symptom-free during holidays and days off work. He tolerated ingestion of foods, including almonds. Almond shell without the hull was pulverized and the shell dust extract showed bands ranging from 11 to 14 kDa. However, immunoblotting analysis did not show IgE reactivity in the patient’s serum to any bands. SPTs with food (including those of almonds and other Rosaceae fruits) were negative. Specific inhalation challenge with almond shell dust resulted in an immediate asthmatic response after 5 min which still persisted 24 h after the challenge. (Foti 2008 ref.22065 5)

Reference:
Foti C, Nettis E, Cassano N, Damiani E, Carino M, Vena GA. Non-allergic occupational asthma because of almond shell dust. Allergy 2008 Jul;63(7):1087-1088



[ 2 ]

Immunological and respiratory findings were studied in a group of 90 confectioners. Intradermal skin tests with different food allergens demonstrated the largest positive skin reaction to cocoa (63%), followed by chocolate (9%), cacao, nut and almond (6%) and sugar (2%). Increased IgE serum levels were found in 13.8% of the confectioners, and elevated IgM concentrations in 43.3%. The prevalence of occupational asthma and dyspnea (26.1%) in workers with positive skin tests was significantly higher than in those with negative skin tests (0%; 4.1%). There was a high prevalence of acute symptoms during the work shift. Most of these complaints were more frequent in workers with positive than in those with negative skin tests. Lung function studies demonstrated significant mean acute across-shift reductions of ventilatory capacity. (Zuskin 1994 ref.2023 7)

Reference:
Zuskin E, Kanceljak B, Mustajbegovic J. Epidemiologic study of immunologic status of confectionary workers [Serbo-Croatian]. Lijec Vjesn 1994;116(9-10):240-244




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